Romans, prefer other old peoples took spoils native their defeated enemies. In the early duration of Rome’s advance the most crucial spoils the Romans took from their enemies was land. Rome hardly ever had sufficient land to carry out for all of her citizens. Lock were not seafarers, for this reason they couldn’t settle the troubles of land shortage through colonization or profession like, say the Athenians. So, roman settlements had to it is in in Italy, and that intended that they had actually to take it land far from some other state to achieve that goal. Roman politicians knew that they might relieve populace pressures at Rome by fighting to gain much more land, so politics leaders, who were also, girlfriend remember, military leaders proactively sought wars.

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But financial motives no the only ones. The causes of development were more facility than merely wars because that land. Conditions in Italy in the early on Republic make it almost impossible for Rome or any kind of other state to prevent war. There to be literally hundreds of small, independent says in Italy, all contending with one an additional for limited resources. Many of these states essential land, and they might only obtain it by taking it from their neighbors. So, war came to be a continuous feature of roman inn life at a really early phase in its development. Roman inn virtues to be warrior virtues the were ideal to farmers and warriors. In bespeak to obtain those virtues, men needed to fight wars. Thus, one major benefit of development was glory! If a consul winner a good battle his call increased. He and also his relatives would uncover it less complicated to victory election to workplaces in the future and also would be offered greater army responsibilities. Even usual soldiers earned great prestige once they had fought in an essential Roman victory. They received land and a re-superstructure in the spoils of war. Thus, the Romans were always ready and also even passionate to fight, if they to be given any type of reason to carry out so by some various other state. And conditions were such the reasons might usually be found.

Another essential reason for Roman expansion is also related come the frequency of war in the early duration of Rome’s development. Romans were used to viewing your “next-door neighbors” as potential risks to the protection of the Republic. Together Rome expanded in Italy, she bumped into yet another quarrelsome ar that want her land. Hence, the unwritten assumption of Roman international policy came to be “every ar is yet another potential threat.”

Rome’s earliest conquests can it is in neatly separated into three parts -- the occupation of central Italy, the occupation of northern italy, and also the occupation of southern Italy. We start with central Italy. Indigenous 500-400 Rome dealt with primarily versus hill people and nearby cities in central Italy. Usually they did for this reason to safeguard themselves. These people or these various other cities raided Rome, and also Roman soldiers would certainly go the end and shot to conquer them. And to make certain that they would certainly not be intimidated again, Rome would resolve some of her very own citizens amongst these people. In other words, the roman inn citizens would obtain land, work out down, and type communities that their very own or intermarry v the locals. What this method is the Roman settlements are now farther far from Rome proper, and they have to be protected as well – which way more expansion.

In the 390s one more threat appeared, this time native the north. Tribes of Celts – called Gauls – started to raid into central Italy, and also the Romans organized resistance amongst the various other Italian urban to this raids. By 350 BC the Romans to be able to defeat the Gauls and establish your authority over northern Italy.

In 282 B.C. The Romans received an very nice from some of the old Greek urban in southerly Italy to help them in resisting among the lesser Hellenistic kingdoms, that of Epirus. The Romans i agree to carry out that assistance and fought against the king, called Pyrrhus, until 275 once they no only defeated that king however essentially brought all of southern Italy under their influence. So, by 275 BC the Romans controlled all of Italy.


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By 275 the Romans controlled all of Italy, and in 264 started the an excellent wars that enabled Rome to end up being master the the Mediterranean. The most essential of these wars were dubbed the Punic wars, which come in three parts. The first lasted indigenous 264 come 241 B.C., and the 2nd from 218 to 201 B.C. The third led to the devastation of Carthage in 146 B.C.

These wars were fought versus the city of Carthage, an old Phoenician swarm (Punic is one more word because that Phoenician) top top the northern shore of Africa. In 264 Carthage to be a lot like Rome. It was powerful, controlled a many territory, including Spain through the way, and also wanted more. The factor for the war was actually rather simple. Rome and Carthage to be the two large powers in the central Mediterranean. It just seemed unavoidable that this two huge powers would involved blows.


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In the an initial war, most of the fighting took ar on the sea approximately Sicily. The Romans were at a disadvantage due to the fact that they had actually no navy. However they produced several big fleets as soon as they observed it was necessary. They borrowed ship design from your Italian Greek allies, and probably employed them as rowers as well. They climate modified their ships to revolve sea battles into land battles. Roman inn loses to be tremendous, yet they ultimately won through sheer perseverance.

The chief attribute of this second Punic battle was that the Carthaginian military was commanded by an additional one of those armed forces geniuses of the old world, Hannibal. Hannibal chose to take it the battle to the Romans. Hannibal led his pressures into Italy in 218 BC and proceeded to beat the Romans in fight after battle. Yet Hannibal might never accomplish two feats that were vital to defeat Rome. He could never take it the city itself, and he might never get the other Italian urban to abandon their roman inn allies. Those plans we talked around of providing lots that rights and independence to the Italian cities really paid off in the Punic Wars.


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Every time the Romans dealt with a fight with Hannibal lock lost. For this reason they decided to harass his military as that marched up and also down Italy. In other words, lock wore the out. Climate in 204 BC, a Roman military under a famed commander by the name of Scipio Africanus landing in Africa come threaten Carthage itself. Hannibal was compelled to leaving Italy and also defend his home. In ~ the battle of Zama, close to Carthage, the Romans defeated him because that the first time. Hannibal fled come the Hellenistic kingdoms of the East and also Carthage surrendered. Rome was now the chief power of the central Mediterranean.

After Zama, the king of Macedonia, Philip V, welcomed Hannibal to his court. Hannibal assured Philip that the Romans had expended so countless men and resources defeating Carthage the Philip might pick up some territory. Top top Hannibal’s advice, Philip began to put pressure on the Greeks who complained to Rome.

The Romans placed Scipio in charge. Scipio elevated an army, and, in what is called the second Macedonian War, 200-196 B.C., the crushed Philip. The Punic Wars had actually not in reality weakened Rome yet given it a large, knowledgeable fighting force led by important able commanders.

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After the Romans defeated Philip, the Seleucid king, Antiochus III, thought, “Hey, the Antigonids room weak, therefore that provides me an chance to increase my power in Greece.” (Hannibal was currently with him as well -- he would commit suicide in 183 BC) So, in 192 BC he started to annoy Rome’s Greek friends. The Romans asked Scipio to go to work again, and also he beat the Seleucid military (The Syrian War, 192-189BC).