In a single molecule of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by A) hydrogen bonds. B) nonpolar covalent bonds. C) polar covalent bonds. D) ionic bonds. E) valve der Waals interactions.

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The slight an unfavorable charge at one end of one water molecule is attractive to the slight confident charge of one more water molecule. What is this attraction called? A) a covalent shortcut B) a hydrogen shortcut C) an ionic bond D) a hydrophilic link E) a van der Waals interaction


The partial an adverse charge in a molecule the water occurs since A) the oxygen atom acquires an additional electron. B) the electron shared between the oxygen and also hydrogen atoms spend an ext time roughly the oxygen atom cell nucleus than around the hydrogen atom nucleus. C) the oxygen atom has actually two bag of electrons in that valence covering that are not neutralized through hydrogen atoms. D) the oxygen atom develops hybrid orbitals that distribute electrons unequally about the oxygen nucleus. E) among the hydrogen atoms donates an electron to the oxygen atom.


Sulfur is in the same column of the routine table as oxygen, however has electronegativity comparable to carbon. Contrasted to water molecules, molecule of H₂S A) will ionize much more readily. B) will certainly have better cohesion to other molecules that H₂S. C) will have actually a greater propensity to form hydrogen bonds v each other. D) will have actually a greater capacity to absorb heat for the same adjust in temperature. E) will certainly not form hydrogen bonds v each other.


Water molecules are able to kind hydrogen bonds through A) compound that have actually polar covalent bonds. B) oils. C) oxygen gas (O₂) molecules. D) chloride ions. E) any type of compound that is not soluble in water.


Which of the following effects is created by the high surface tension of water? A) Lakes don"t freeze solid in winter, regardless of low temperatures. B) A water strider deserve to walk across the surface ar of a tiny pond. C) Organisms resist temperature changes, although they offer off heat because of chemical reactions. D) Evaporation that sweat from the skin help to keep world from overheating. E) Water flows upward from the root to the leaves in plants.


Which of the following takes place as an ice cream cube cools a drink? A) molecular collisions in the drink increase. B) Kinetic power in the drink decreases.C) A calorie of heat power is moved from the ice cream to the water the the drink. D) The particular heat that the water in the drink decreases. E) Evaporation that the water in the drink increases.


A dietary Calorie amounts to 1 kilocalorie. Which of the following statements correctly specifies 1 kilocalorie? A) 1,000 calories, or the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water through 1,000°C B) 100 calories, or the quantity of heat forced to advanced the temperature of 100 g of water through 1°C C) 10,000 calories, or the lot of heat required to raise the temperature that 1 kg of water by 1°F D) 1,000 calories, or the amount of heat compelled to progressive the temperature that 1 kg of water through 1°C E) 1,000 calories, or the amount of heat compelled to advanced the temperature of 100 g of water by 100°C


The nutritional information on a grain box shows that one offer of a dry cereal has 200 kilocalories. If one were to burn one serving of the cereal, the quantity of heat offered off would certainly be sufficient to advanced the temperature the 20 kg the water how countless degrees Celsius? A) 0.2°C B) 1.0°C C) 2.0°C D) 10.0°C E) 20.0°C


Liquid water"s high details heat is mostly a repercussion of the A) small size that the water molecules. B) high particular heat the oxygen and hydrogen atoms. C) absorption and also release of heat when hydrogen bonds break and form. D) fact that water is a poor heat conductor. E) greater density of liquid water 보다 solid water (ice).


Which type of bond need to be damaged for water to vaporize? A) ionic bond B) both hydrogen bonds and also ionic bondsC) polar covalent binding D) hydrogen bond E) both polar covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds


Temperature usually rises when water condenses. Which actions of water is most directly responsible for this phenomenon? A) the adjust in density when the condenses to type a fluid or hard B) reaction with other atmospheric compounds C) the relax of warm by the development of hydrogen bonds D) the relax of warm by the breaking of hydrogen binding E) the high surface tension of water


Why go evaporation of water from a surface cause cooling of the surface? A) The break of bonds between water molecule absorbs heat. B) The water molecules through the most heat energy evaporate much more readily. C) The solute molecule left behind absorb heat. D) Water molecules absorb warmth from the surface in order to gain enough energy to evaporate. E) The development of water vapor extracts heat from the surface.


Why does ice float in fluid water? A) The high surface stress of fluid water keeps the ice on top. B) The ionic bonds in between the molecule in ice prevent the ice from sinking. C) Ice constantly has air bubbles that keep it afloat. D) Hydrogen bonds stabilize and keep the molecule of ice farther apart 보다 the water molecules of liquid water. E) The crystalline lattice of ice reasons it to be denser 보다 liquid water.


Hydrophobic building material such as vegetable oil space A) nonpolar substances the repel water molecules. B) nonpolar building material that have an attraction for water molecules. C) polar substances the repel water molecules. D) polar building materials that have an affinity because that water. E) fee molecules that hydrogen-bond through water molecules.


One mole (mol) the glucose (molecular mass = 180 daltons) is A) 180 × 10²³ molecules of glucose. B) 1 kg that glucose liquified in 1 together of solution. C) the largest amount of glucose that have the right to be dissolved in 1 l of solution. D) 180 kilograms that glucose. E) both 180 grams the glucose and also 6.02 × 10²³ molecule of glucose.


How countless molecules of glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆ molecule mass = 180 daltons) would be present in 90 grams of glucose? A) 90 × 10²³ B) (6.02/180) × 10²³ C) (6.02/90) × 10²³ D) (90 x 6.02) × 10²³ E) (90/180) × 6.02 × 10²³


How plenty of molecules the glycerol (C₃H₈O₃; molecule mass = 92) would certainly be present in 1 l of a 1 M glycerol solution?A) 1 × 10⁶ B) 14 × 6.02 × 10²³ C) 92 × 6.02 × 10²³ D) 6.02 × 10²⁶ E) 6.02 × 10²³


When an ionic link such as salt chloride (NaCl) is put in water, the component atoms of the NaCl crystal dissociate into individual sodium ions (Na⁺) and chloride ions (Cl⁻). In contrast, the atom of covalently external inspection molecules (e.g., glucose, sucrose, glycerol) execute not typically dissociate when placed in aqueous solution. I m sorry of the adhering to solutions would certainly be expected to contain the greatest variety of solute corpuscle (molecules or ions)? A) 1 l of 0.5 M NaCl B) 1 l of 0.5 M glucose C) 1 l of 1.0 M NaCl D) 1 together of 1.0 M glucose E) 1 together of 1.0 M NaCl and 1 together of 1.0 M glucose will contain same numbers that solute particles.


The molar mass of glucose is 180 g/mol. I m sorry of the complying with procedures have to you bring out to do a 1 M solution of glucose? A) Dissolve 1 g that glucose in 1 l of water. B) Dissolve 180 g that glucose in 1 together of water. C) Dissolve 180 g the glucose in 180 g of water. D) Dissolve 180 milligrams (mg) the glucose in 1 together of water. E) Dissolve 180 g the glucose in 0.8 l of water, and then add more water till the complete volume the the solution is 1 L.


The molar massive of glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆) is 180 g/mol. Which of the following procedures have to you bring out to make a 0.5 M systems of glucose? A) Dissolve 0.5 g of glucose in a small volume of water, and also then add an ext water till the complete volume of equipment is 1 L. B) Dissolve 90 g that glucose in a small volume of water, and then add an ext water until the total volume the the solution is 1 L. C) Dissolve 180 g the glucose in a small volume the water, and then add much more water until the full volume that the equipment is 1 L. D) Dissolve 0.5 g that glucose in 1 l of water. E) Dissolve 180 g of glucose in 0.5 l of water.


You have actually a freshly ready 0.1 M equipment of glucose in water. Every liter the this solution includes how numerous glucose molecules? A) 6.02 × 10²³ B) 3.01 × 10²³ C) 6.02 × 10²⁴ D) 12.04 × 10²³ E) 6.02 × 10²²


The molecular weight of water is 18 daltons. What is the molarity of 1 liter the pure water? (Hint: What is the mass of 1 liter that pure water?) A) 55.6 M B) 18 M C) 37 M D) 0.66 M E) 1.0 M


You have a freshly all set 1 M equipment of glucose in water. You very closely pour out a 100 mL sample of the solution. How many glucose molecules are had in that 100 mL sample? A) 6.02 × 10²³ B) 3.01 × 10²³ C) 6.02 × 10²⁴ D) 12.04 × 10²³ E) 6.02 × 10²²


A solid acid like HCl A) ionizes totally in one aqueous solution. B) boosts the pH when added to one aqueous solution. C) reaction with strong bases to develop a buffered solution. D) is a solid buffer at short pH. E) both ionizes totally in aqueous solutions and is a strong buffer at short pH.


Which the the adhering to ionizes completely in solution and is taken into consideration to it is in a solid base (alkali)? A) NaCl B) HCl C) NH₃ D) H₂CO₃ E) NaOH


A 0.01 M systems of a substance has actually a pH that 2. What can you conclude about this substance? A) it is a strong acid the ionizes fully in water. B) the is a solid base the ionizes fully in water. C) that is a weak acid. D) that is a weak base. E) that is neither an mountain nor a base.


A provided solution consists of 0.0001(10⁻⁴) moles of hydrogen ions per liter. I beg your pardon of the following best describes this solution? A) acidic: will certainly accept H⁺ indigenous both solid and weak mountain B) basic: will certainly accept H⁺ indigenous both strong and weak acids C) acidic: will offer H⁺ to weak acids, however accept H+ from solid acids D) basic: will give H⁺ to weak acids, yet accept H⁺ native weak mountain E) acidic: will give H⁺ to both strong and weak acids


A solution contains 0.0000001(10⁻⁷) moles of hydroxyl ion every liter. Which of the following ideal describes this solution? A) acidic: H⁺ agree B) basic: H⁺ acceptor C) acidic: H⁺ donor D) basic: H⁺ donor E) neutral


What is the pH that a solution with a hydroxyl ion concentration of 10⁻¹² M? A) pH 2 B) pH 4 C) pH 10 D) pH 12 E) pH 14


Which that the adhering to solutions would require the greatest amount of base to be included to bring the equipment to neutral pH? A) gastric juice in ~ pH 2 B) vinegar at pH 3 C) tomato juice in ~ pH 4 D) black coffee at pH 5 E) family members bleach in ~ pH 12


What is the hydrogen ion concentration that a systems of pH 8? A) 8 M B) 8 x 10⁻⁶ M C) 0.01 M D) 10⁻⁸ M E) 10⁻⁶ M


If the pH of a equipment is reduced from 9 come 8, it means that the A) concentration that H⁺ has decreased to one-tenth (1/10) what it was at pH 9. B) concentration the H⁺ has increased tenfold (10X) contrasted to what it to be at pH 9. C) concentration of OH⁻ has actually increased tenfold (10X) contrasted to what it to be at pH 9. D) concentration of OH⁻ has lessened to one-tenth (1/10) what it to be at pH 9. E) concentration the H⁺ has actually increased tenfold (10X) and also the concentration the OH⁻ has reduced to one-tenth (1/10) what they to be at pH 9.


If the pH the a solution is enhanced from pH 5 to pH 7, it method that the A) concentration the H⁺ is double (2X) what it to be at pH 5. B) concentration of H⁺ is one-half (1/2) what it was at pH 5. C) concentration that OH⁻ is 100 times greater than what it was at pH 5. D) concentration the OH⁻ is one-hundredth (0.01X) what it to be at pH 5. E) concentration that H⁺ is 100 time greater and also the concentration that OH⁻ is one-hundredth what they to be at pH 5.


One liter the a solution of pH 2 has how many an ext hydrogen ions (H⁺) than 1 l of a equipment of pH 6? A) 4 times more B) 16 times an ext C) 40,000 times more D) 10,000 times an ext E) 100,000 time more


One liter of a solution of pH 9 has actually how many an ext hydroxyl ion (OH⁻) than 1 l of a equipment of pH 4? A) 5 times an ext B) 32 times an ext C) 50,000 times an ext D) 10,000 times much more E) 100,000 time more


Which of the adhering to statements is true around buffer solutions? A) They keep a constant pH once bases are included to them however not once acids are included to them. B) They keep a constant pH when acids are included to them yet not once bases are included to them. C) They keep a relatively consistent pH of approximately 7 as soon as either mountain or bases are included to them. D) They keep a relatively consistent pH once either mountain or bases are included to them. E) they are discovered only in life systems and also biological fluids.


Buffers space substances that assist resist shifts in pH through A) release H⁺ come a solution once acids room added. B) donating H⁺ to a solution when bases are added. C) releasing OH⁻ to a solution as soon as bases room added. D) agree H⁺ indigenous a solution when acids space added. E) both donating H⁺ come a solution as soon as bases space added, and accepting H⁺ as soon as acids space added.


One of the buffers that add to pH security in human being blood is carbonic mountain (H₂CO₃). Carbonic mountain is a weak acid that dissociates right into a bicarbonate ion (HCO₃⁻) and a hydrogen ion (H⁺). Thus, H₂CO₃ ↔ HCO₃⁻ + H⁺ If the pH of the blood drops, one would suppose A) a diminish in the concentration of H₂CO₃ and an increase in the concentration of HCO₃⁻. B) the concentration of hydroxide ion (OH⁻) come increase. C) the concentration of bicarbonate ion (HCO₃⁻) to increase. D) the HCO₃⁻ to act together a base and also remove excess H⁺ through the formation of H₂CO₃. E) the HCO₃⁻ come act as an acid and remove overfill H⁺ through the formation of H₂CO₃.


One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic mountain (H₂CO₃). Carbonic acid is a weak mountain that, when placed in an aqueous solution, dissociates right into a bicarbonate ion (HCO₃⁻ and also a hydrogen ion (H⁺). Thus, H₂CO₃ ↔ HCO₃⁻ + H⁺ If the pH that the blood increases, one would mean A) a decrease in the concentration the H₂CO₃ and boost in the concentration the HCO₃⁻. B) rise in the concentration that H₂CO₃ and also a to decrease in the concentration that HCO₃⁻. C) a diminish in the concentration of HCO₃⁻ and boost in the concentration the H⁺. D) boost in the concentration that HCO₃⁻ and a diminish in the concentration that OH⁻. E) a diminish in the concentration that HCO₃⁻ and boost in the concentration the both HH₂CO₃ and also H⁺.


Assume that acid rain has actually lowered the pH the a certain lake to pH 4.0. What is the hydroxyl ion concentration the this lake? A) 1 × 10⁻¹⁰ mol of hydroxyl ion per liter that lake water B) 1 × 10⁻⁴ mol of hydroxyl ion every liter of lake water C) 10.0 M v regard come hydroxyl ion concentration D) 4.0 M through regard come hydroxyl ion concentration E) 1 × 10⁻⁴ mol that hydroxyl ion per liter the lake water and also 4.0 M with regard to hydrogen ion concentration


Research shows that mountain precipitation can damage living biology by A) buffering aquatic equipment such as lakes and also streams. B) diminish the H⁺ concentration of lakes and streams. C) raising the OH⁻ concentration that lakes and streams. D) washing away details mineral ions that aid buffer floor solution and also are essential nutrients because that plant growth. E) both diminish the H⁺ concentration the lakes and also streams and increasing the OH⁻ concentration that lakes and streams.


Consider two solutions: equipment X has actually a pH the 4; systems Y has actually a pH the 7. From this information, we have the right to reasonably conclude that A) systems Y has no totally free hydrogen ions (H⁺). B) the concentration that hydrogen ions in equipment X is 30 time as good as the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution Y. C) the concentration that hydrogen ion in solution Y is 1,000 time as an excellent as the concentration of hydrogen ion in equipment X. D) the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution X is 3 times as great as the concentration that hydrogen ions in solution Y. E) the concentration the hydrogen ions in solution X is 1,000 times as an excellent as the concentration the hydrogen ions in systems Y.


If a solution has actually a pH of 7, this means that A) there are no H⁺ ion in the water. B) this is a systems of pure water. C) the concentration of H⁺ ion in the water equates to the concentration of OH⁻ ions in the water. D) this is a systems of pure water, and also the concentration of H⁺ ion in the water is 10⁻⁷ M. E) this is a solution of pure water, and also the concentration of H⁺ ions equates to the concentration the OH⁻ ion in the water.


Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is conveniently soluble in water, follow to the equation CO₂ + H₂O ↔ H₂CO₃. Carbonic mountain (H₂CO₃) is a weak acid. Respiring cells release CO₂ into the bloodstream. What will be the effect on pH the blood as that blood very first comes in contact with respiring cells? A) Blood pH will certainly decrease slightly. B) Blood pH will rise slightly. C) Blood pH will continue to be unchanged. D) Blood pH will first increase, climate decrease as CO₂ combines through hemoglobin. E) Blood pH will first decrease, then rise sharply as CO₂ combines v hemoglobin.


A beaker contains 100 mL of NaOH equipment at pH = 13. A technician closely pours right into the maker 10 mL of HCl at pH = 1. I m sorry of the following statements correctly defines the outcomes of this mixing? A) The concentration of Na⁺ ion rises. B) The concentration of Cl⁻ ion will be 0.1 M. C) The concentration the undissociated H₂O molecules stays unchanged. D) The pH the the beaker"s components will it is in neutral. E) The pH the the beaker"s materials falls.


Equal quantities (5 mL) the vinegar indigenous a freshly opened bottle are included to every of the adhering to solutions. After finish mixing, which of the mixtures will have actually the highest possible pH? A) 100 mL of pure water B) 100 mL of fresh brewed coffee C) 100 mL of family members cleanser containing 0.5 M ammonia D) 100 mL of freshly squeezed orange juice E) 100 mL the tomato juice


Increased atmospheric CO₂ concentrations might have what impact on seawater? A) Seawater will become more acidic, and bicarbonate concentrations will decrease. B) Seawater will become more alkaline, and also carbonate concentrations will decrease. C) There will certainly be no adjust in the pH the seawater, since carbonate will revolve to bicarbonate. D) Seawater will certainly become more acidic, and carbonate concentrations will decrease. E) Seawater will become more acidic, and carbonate concentrations will increase.


How would certainly acidification of seawater affect marine organisms? A) Acidification would increase liquified carbonate concentrations and also promote faster expansion of corals and also shell-building animals. B) Acidification would certainly decrease dissolved carbonate concentrations and promote faster growth of corals and also shell-building animals. C) Acidification would certainly increase liquified carbonate concentrations and also hinder growth of corals and shell-building animals. D) Acidification would certainly decrease liquified carbonate concentrations and also hinder growth of corals and also shell-building animals. E) Acidification would certainly increase dissolved bicarbonate concentrations, and cause enhanced calcification of corals and shellfish.


One idea to mitigate the impacts of burn fossil fuels on atmospheric CO₂ concentration is come pipe fluid CO₂ into the ocean at depth of 2,500 feet or greater. In ~ the high pressure at such depths, CO₂ is heavier 보다 water. What potential effects might result from implementing such a scheme? A) increased photosynthetic carbon fixation since of the increased dissolved carbon dioxide in the deep water B) enhanced carbonate concentrations in the deep waters C) lessened growth of corals indigenous a adjust in the carbonate—bicarbonate equilibrium D) no effect because carbon dioxide is no soluble in water E) both boosted acidity the the deep waters and also changes in the expansion of bottom-dwelling organisms with calcium carbonate shells


If the cytoplasm the a cell is at pH 7, and also the mitochondrial matrix is at pH 8, this way that A) the concentration that H⁺ ions is tenfold higher in the cytoplasm 보다 in the mitochondrial matrix. B) the concentration of H⁺ ions is tenfold higher in the mitochondrial matrix than in the cytoplasm. C) the concentration of H⁺ ion in the cytoplasm is 7/8 the concentration in the mitochondrial matrix. D) the mitochondrial matrix is much more acidic 보다 the cytoplasm. E) the concentration the H⁺ ions in the cytoplasm is 8/7 the concentration in the mitochondrial matrix.


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Based top top your expertise of the polarity the water molecules, the solute molecule portrayed here is most likely A) positively charged. B) negatively charged. C) without charge. D) hydrophobic. E) nonpolar.



How plenty of grams would certainly be equal to 1 mol that the compound displayed in the number above? (carbon = 12, oxygen = 16, hydrogen = 1) A) 29 B) 30 C) 60 D) 150 E) 342



How numerous grams of the compound in the figure above would be forced to make 1 l of a 0.5 M solution? (carbon = 12, oxygen = 16, hydrogen = 1) A) 29 B) 30 C) 60 D) 150 E) 342



How plenty of grams of the link in the figure above would be forced to make 2.5 together of a 1 M solution? (carbon = 12, oxygen = 16, hydrogen = 1) A) 29 B) 30 C) 60 D) 150 E) 342


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A little birthday candle is weighed, climate lighted and placed beneath a metal have the right to containing 100 mL the water. Careful records are preserved as the temperature that the water rises. Data native this experiment are displayed on the graph. What amount of heat energy is exit in the burn of candle wax? A) 0.5 kilocalories per gram that wax melted B) 5 kilocalories every gram of wax burnedC) 10 kilocalories per gram the wax burned D) 20 kilocalories every gram the wax burned E) 50 kilocalories every gram that wax burned


Identical warmth lamps room arranged come shine on the same containers the water and methanol (wood alcohol), so the each fluid absorbs the very same amount of power minute by minute. The covalent bonds of methanol molecules are nonpolar, therefore there space no hydrogen bonds among methanol molecules. Which of the following graphs correctly explains what will occur to the temperature the the water and also the methanol?


Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is conveniently soluble in water, follow to the equation CO₂ + H₂O ↔ H₂CO₃. Carbonic mountain (H₂CO₃) is a weak acid. If CO₂ is bubbled into a maker containing pure, freshly distilled water, i m sorry of the following graphs correctly explains the results?


You have two beakers. One includes pure water, the other has pure methanol (wood alcohol). The covalent binding of methanol molecules are nonpolar, therefore there room no hydrogen bonds among methanol molecules. You pour crystals of table salt (NaCl) right into each beaker. Guess what will certainly happen. A) Equal amounts of NaCl crystals will dissolve in both water and methanol. B) NaCl crystals will NOT dissolve in either water or methanol. C) NaCl crystals will dissolve readily in water but will not dissolve in methanol. D) NaCl crystals will dissolve conveniently in methanol yet will no dissolve in water. E) when the very first crystals the NaCl are included to water or to methanol, they will certainly not dissolve; yet as much more crystals are added, the crystals will start to dissolve faster and faster.


You have two beakers. One contains a systems of HCl at pH = 1.0. The other contains a systems of NaOH at pH = 13. Into a third beaker, you slowly and cautiously pour 20 mL of the HCl and also 20 mL the the NaOH. After complete stirring, the pH that the mixture will be A) 2.0. B) 12.0. C) 7.0. D) 5.0. E) 9.0.


Many mammals manage their human body temperature by sweating. Which home of water is most straight responsible because that the capability of sweat to reduced body temperature? A) water"s adjust in density when that condenses B) water"s ability to dissolve molecules in the wait C) the release of warm by the development of hydrogen bonds D) the absorption of warm by the break of hydrogen binding E) water"s high surface ar tension


The bonds the are broken when water vaporizes room A) ionic bonds. B) hydrogen bonds in between water molecules. C) covalent bonds between atoms within water molecules. D) polar covalent bonds. E) nonpolar covalent bonds.

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We can be sure that a mole the table sugar and a mole that vitamin C room equal in their A) fixed in daltons. B) massive in grams. C) volume. D) variety of atoms. E) variety of molecules.


Measurements show that the pH that a certain lake is 4.0. What is the hydrogen ion concentration of the lake? A) 4.0 M B) 10⁻¹⁰ M C) 10⁻⁴ M D) 10⁴ M E) 4%


Measurements display that the pH the a specific lake is 4.0. What is the hydroxide ion concentration the the lake? A) 10⁻¹⁰ M B) 10⁻⁴ M C) 10⁻⁷ M D) 10⁻¹⁴ M E) 10 M


A part of pizza has actually 500 kcal. If we could burn the pizza and also use every the warm to warm a 50-L container the cold water, what would be the approximate increase in the temperature the the water? (Note: A liter that cold water weighs around 1 kg.) A) 50°C B) 5°C C) 1°C D) 100°C E) 10°C


How numerous grams that acetic acid (C₂H₄O₂) would certainly you usage to make 10 l of a 0.1 M aqueous systems of acetic acid? (Note: The atom masses, in daltons, are approximately 12 because that carbon, 1 for hydrogen, and 16 for oxygen.) A) 10 g B) 0.1 g C) 6.0 g D) 60 g E) 0.6 g