Fighting because that a Continent
Newspaper Coverage the the English and also French war For regulate of north America, 1754-1760
Stories of enemy Atrocities, letter From the Front and Battle-Field Reports gave Readers a running Account of the Fight because that a Continent.by David A. CopelandThe news in America"s newspapers
in the first six month of 1754 was no good. England"s long-time enemy and challenger for manage of north America, France, had, with the aid of indigenous American allies, score a series of victories end English early american troops indigenous the backcountry of Virginia through brand-new England.Fear the France would shortly make a move to drive all the English out of phibìc America seemed ready to become reality. A distraught Virginia branch Robert Dinwiddie had actually warned the colony"s assemblymen the the very "Welfare of all the nests on this Continent" was in jeopardy native the French and their indigenous American friends. Come make certain the house of Burgesses members truly understood the implications of the threat, the branch painted this bloody portrait the what awaited all the English if the French and also their allies were not stopped:Think you check out the child torn indigenous the unavailing battles of the distracted Mother, the Daughters ravished prior to the eye of your wretched Parents; and then, through Cruelty and insult, butcherd and also scalped. Intend the horrid step compleated, and also the entirety Family, Man, Wife, and Children (as castle were) murdered and also scalped . . . And then torn in Pieces, and in component devoured through wild Beasts, for whom they were left a food by their an ext brutal Enemies.1
Dinwiddie concluded by informing those in the Assembly that the "Season for entering ~ above Action" was at hand.The indigenous of governor Dinwiddie and also the actions of the French and also Indians echoed through the pages of America"s papers in 1754. The news of the war ongoing unabated in America"s press until the French officially relinquished land claims in phibìc America in 1763, and also the vast majority of indigenous Americans eastern of the Mississippi river either passed away fighting, yielded to tranquility treaties with the English settlers, or moved westward.This research study looks at newspaper coverage the the French and Indian battle era, focusing upon the threats that the "Colonies come the Northward,"1 that is, the French nests to the north of British colonial America, presented to English settlers. In particular, this research presents newspaper coverage of exactly how French troops from Canada developed panic in the British nests with a collection of victories end the English and also how the English recouped to at some point take control of Canada, which was seen as France"s passageway right into the American colonies2 and whose defeat would certainly signal "the Honour and also Glory the Great-Britain the Prosperity and Welfare of phibìc America."3 The research study seeks to offer an accurate portrayal of component the indepth newspaper coverage that this war that effectively removed France as a crucial player in phibìc American settlement. The research study at the very same time demonstrates just how newspapers covered a widespread occasion of intercolonial importance and also served together a catalyst in the evolution of individual, autonomous colonies into a political body v a national conscious.Media historian Frank Luther Mott called the French and also Indian war "the good running story" the the early american era,4 yet neither Mott nor other media historians discuss in any kind of detail newspaper coverage the the war except to cite of the Pennsylvania Gazette woodcut "Join or Die" that showed up 9 may 1754 as a warning of what might happen uneven the nests united come fight the French and also Indians.5 This research is a preliminary action in providing an exact portrayal of "the great running story" of the era.For this study, five early american newspapers were review in their whole from January 1754 v December 1763. The newspapers were the South-Carolina Gazette, the Maryland Gazette, the Pennsylvania Gazette, the New-York Mercury, and the Boston Gazette. Newspapers were selected due to the fact that of their geographic locations and also because of their continuity the publication. Approximately 2,600 problems were read.Before looking at newspaper coverage the the war between the French and English because that what ultimately led come English dominance of Canada and North America east of the Mississippi River, a quick overview of the relationship between the English and also French in phibìc America should help in knowledge British early american feelings and also newspaper solution to the war.
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English and also French relations in early american AmericaEnglish and French inhabitants in America collided virtually immediately after long-term settlements by both countries had been established in 1607 and 1608 respectively. In 1629, hostilities between the countries erupted v the English occupying Quebec native 1629-1632. For the most part, though, the swarms of the 2 nations arisen independently in the seventeenth century. England occupied the Atlantic seaboard indigenous Maine to southern Carolina, and also France settled Canada and also the central part of the continent west the the Appalachian mountains to the mouth of the Mississippi River. Indigenous American tribes, especially the Iroquois and also Cherokees, served as a buffer in between the two powers in the an ar of the English center Colonies and also Southern Colonies.6Even though the 2 nations resolved North America independently, confrontations between English and also French homesteaders in new England and new York and also Southeastern Canada arisen because the the proximity of settlements and the absence of obstacles such together the Appalachian mountains or large Native American nations. Brothers settlers, urged top top by mr Protector Oliver Cromwell, recorded Acadiathe region of eastern Maine, new Brunswick, and also Nova Scotiain 1654, but the region was returned to France under the monarchy of the pro-Catholic Charles II in 1667. The would, however, stay an area of contention for one more century.7 As lengthy as England had kings v papist leanings, England and France peacefully coexisted. But, the Glorious transformation of 1688 put the Protestant wilhelm III top top England"s throne, and also within a year, England and also France to be again in ~ war. In America the war, named for the English king, was dealt with mainly in the border an ar of brand-new England and Canada with sparse fighting in new York. Native Americans joined the French in their raids of English settlements.8American newspapers echoed the fear and also dislike that had actually long existed between the English and French. The single edition of Publick events in 1690 reported that the Honourable general Winthrop had actually led an exploration into French territiories as component of the colonial effort to send the French ago to Canada in King William"s War. The story also petitioned Almighty God to aid subdue Canada.9 The first issue of the Boston News-Letter in 1704 opened up with a lengthy account that France"s plans come gain regulate of England and subsequently all English territory in America by place the Scottish "Pretender," James III, ~ above England"s throne. The news from London warned that "the French Kinch knows over there cannot be a more effectual means for himself to arrive at the universal Monarchy."10The News-Letter"s report referred to English and French hostilities that had erupted in 1702 and continued until 1713 in Queen Anne"s War, but following the tranquility of Utrecht, England and France entered a period of European peace that it s long thirty years.11 when fighting in between the two erupted again, the war naturally spilled over into the American colonies, and, just like all various other wars in America in between England and France, native Americans were main to the fighting and news reports. Recognized as King George"s battle in America (1744-1748), most of the fighting took place on Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, parts of brand-new France that had been yielded to England by the tranquility of Utrecht in 1713.12 follow to newspaper reports, as much as £105 awaited anyone who could record an enemy Indian masculine in this region and bring him come a brother officer.13A main point of contention in this confrontation was the fortress that Louisbourg top top Cape Breton Island. Constructed by the French together an station in 1713, control of Louisbourg would certainly again become a prime worry of the English during the French and also Indian War. King George"s War provided Louisbourg back to the French in 1748, noted France a refueling station for ships making transatlantic voyages and also a major land and also water armed forces post, and represented a regular threat to the British harbor of Halifax, Nova Scotia.14The animosities between English and also French inhabitants of America resulted in by King George"s war were not settled by the war"s peace treaty. France controlled most that the region of phibìc America, and French claims beyond the Appalachians politics curtailed English westward expansion just as French control of Canada stopped northern migration. European treaties, however, were not sufficient to prevent British and also French expansion. The French started to construct forts in the questioned territory that the Ohio river Valley.15 The British homesteaders saw these brand-new forts and also French troops gift positioned in Canada as trespasses against them. In December 1753, Virginia governor Dinwiddie sent an exploration westward to develop forts to prevent French encroachment.16 by the feather of 1754, brother colonists and also the French to be fighting in the Ohio Valley. Straight involved, particularly on the side of the French, were aboriginal Americans indigenous the St. Lawrence flow to the Mississippi river delta,* and also the true peril of the French and also Indian organization against the British homesteaders was quickly lugged into emphasis by the publication of George Washington"s Journal.17 Later, Washington"s account that his loss at ft Necessity through the French and their allies aided crystalize American settle to fight the French one an ext time.As the nests from Pennsylvania south concentrated their attention upon the transappalachian region, colonists from brand-new York into brand-new England mustered troops and also supplies to battle the adversary from the North, from Canada. Subduing the French in Canada came to be a prime problem for the brother colonists, because, as the Frenchman the Marquis de la Galissoniere had pointed the end in 1750, only Canada v its location and also human and natural sources was truly qualified of thwarting British expansion in the brand-new World.18Driving the French indigenous Canada, then, came to be a prime goal of the brothers American colonies and the mommy Country. Just how newspapers in all regions of the nests reported ~ above the war from that inception to the capitulation that Canada in 1760 follows.
Newspaper CoverageNewspaper printers and also their correspondents took seriously the risk that the French posed come the british American colonies in the 1750s. The French and also their Indian allies had actually been effective from 1754-1756 in beating the british colonists, developing the require for a wake-up speak to for Americans. A writer, calling self the "Virginia Centinel," ceded the address. The said:Friends! Countrymen! . . . Awake! Arise! . . . Once our Country, and also all the is had in that important Word, is in most threatening Danger; once our opponents are busy and also unwearied in planning and executing their Schemes that Encroachments and Barbarity . . . As soon as in brief our all is at Stake . . . The Patriot Passions need to be roused in every Breast qualified of such generous Sensations. . . . Countrymen! Fellow-Subjects! Fellow-Protestants! to connect your Attention, I require only repeat, Your nation is in Danger.19Newspapers not only covered the battle effort, yet they also supported a unit of consciousness for homesteaders along the Atlantic seaboard. Newspaper reports had warned of French troops moving southward from Canada20 and also of the French master plan to catch the continent in 1753,21 but it take it the newspaper publication of the journal of a twenty-two-year-old major in the Virginia militia, George Washington, in 1754, to lug into focus the genuine threat that the French and also their aboriginal American allies presented to the English colonies.Published in the Maryland Gazette on march 21 and also 28, Washington"s Journal gave newspaper reader a first-person account the his talks with aboriginal American and also French army leaders west the the Appalachians. Readers learned the French forts from brand-new Orleans to Canada, a network of indigenous American partnerships with the French, and also how complicated moving supplies into the an ar would be for British fighting units. Washington"s tasks became a element news topic for months,22 culminating in his defeat at fort Necessity on July 3.23The news of Washington and also the French trouble in the Ohio valley did not show up in isolation in early american newspapers. The spring and summer that 1754 brought in reports that French and also Indian activitiy and also troop buildup from Maine southward. The New-York Mercury, because that example, warned readers the the Lake Erie area was currently under French control and that the French and also Indians planned to assault Albany. Unless quit by American forces, the write-up said, citizens can expect France come "subject the whole Continent come the French Yoke."24The widespread assaults by the French indigenous Canada and their Indian alliesbrought into focus by Washington"s Journalled come a call for unity of America"s colonies.25 In the might 9 edition of the Pennsylvania Gazette, a woodcut of a disjointed rattlesnake, whose parts represented the different colonies, appeared. That was came before by the monitorings that "the current disunited State that the brother Colonies, and also the extreme difficulty of bringing so plenty of different Governments and also Assemblies to agree in any speedy and also effectual measures for our common Defence and Security" virtually surely ensured "the devastation of the british Interest, Trade and also Plantations in America."26
The "JOIN, or DIE" snake, the occupational of Gazette printer Benjamin Franklin,27 quickly appeared in various other newspapers. The New-York Mercury created its own woodcut that the disjointed snake to run through the call for a united British America on might 13. Boston Gazette press Samuel Kneeland recreated the snake and added the words, "Unite and also Conquer," coming from the snake"s mouth.28 various other papers defined the snake and its calls for unity however did not develop a woodcut.29Following the woodcut"s speak to for unity, colonial leaders began putting together a conference to discuss a union of swarms to avoid the French and Indians and also to create British alliances with aboriginal Americans. Delegates indigenous Maryland and all the colonies over it met in Albany in June. According to Pennsylvania Gazette, the meeting with aboriginal Americans at Albany ended "in Favour that the brother Interest,"30 yet newspaper reports were also realistic in mentioning that native Americans were cynical to fulfill with English colonists. "A lot smaller Number to visit the Interview, than heretofore has actually been usual," reports stated,* and most that the Indians were late because that the appointed meeting.31 The truth that the congress failed to develop a solid Native American alliance just reaffirmed the fix of the Commissioners in attendance that a union of colonies was necessary. "The Commissioners native the several federal governments were unanimously that Opinion, that an Union of the colonies was absolutely essential in bespeak to loss the Schemes of the French," the Boston Gazette reported.*During the next few months, colonial governors advocated the Albany arrangement of Union, and newspapers carried petitions for its passage. New York governor James De Lancey, in an resolve published in the New-York Mercury, appealed come the new York basic Assembly to support a union of colonies,32 yet the brand-new York legislatureas go the other early american assembliesrejected the Albany arrangement of Union.33 also though colonial governments garbage the Albany plan of Union, newspaper coverage that calls because that union demonstrates the a collective consciousness was occurring in British colonial America. Brand-new York and also other assemblies did carry out money and also troops come fight the French and Indians without hesitation.34 and also even though new York, because that example, had actually to continually worry about French and Indian aggression from Canada, the nest readily sent help to Virginia to aid that colony fight the French and Indians in the Ohio Valley.35The money, supplies, and men elevated by colonial governments to fight did tiny to deter the early on success the the French and Indians. The infusion of brother regulars and commanders did not help, either. An excellent Britain sent basic Edward Braddock and two regiments come fight in the Ohio Valley. Braddock and also his men arrived at ft Cumberland on the grape max River in western Maryland ~ above 11 June 1755, the Maryland Gazette reported, and were join by early american militiamen and much more than one hundred native Americans who had actually aligned themselves v the English.36 letter from early american militia members that showed up in papers kept readers apprised that Braddock"s progression toward the French fort Duquesne at the meeting of the Allegheny, Monongahela, and also Ohio rivers.* however Braddock"s troops were routed through the French and also Indians, and also Braddock killed. Newspapers debated "the melancholy account of the loss of the pressures under the immediate Command of basic Braddock" and also the consequences of that loss on the nests for months.37Braddock"s defeat was just one in a string of news story that painted the snapshot that the English nests were in grave danger of being dominated by the French and their Indian allies. Homesteaders in west Pennsylvania to be constantly being struck by native Americans, papers reported. A letter in the South-Carolina Gazette blamed the raids top top "Those indians renounced your Friendship come the English, shortly after the defeat of general Braddock and (having been encouraged by the French, the the English had laid a deep plan for damaging all the French in America, and after them all the Indians) swore perpetual War against them."38 aside from that north, the cruelty of indigenous Americans under French indict was depicted in records as what awaited every English "put under a French Government." One sinner of the French and also Indians in new York, a report said, had actually his foot broiled by French and Indian soldiers, had gunpowder poured right into a furrow reduced in his earlier and lit, and also was climate scalped and also hot coals put on his skull. Finally, the sinner was chased by soldiers and his head crushed through rocks.39As barbarities such as this were occurring, French troops native Canada and their Indian allies to be eradicating English forts along the Canadian border. Around 1,500 militiamen at Oswego, on Lake Ontario, surrendered the fort to 6,000 French and also Indians, offering up what was considered "one the the most vital Garrisons upon this Continent." Oswego had given colonials control of the good Lakes and temporarily stopped the French from sending troops right into the Ohio sink from Canada.40 ft William Henry, the early american buffer between Albany and the French in ~ Ticonderoga, fell, too, leave a writer come the Boston Gazette to declare, "Our friends and also brethren, exterpated, butchered, scalped; our fields, go waste; ours territories, own by those that hate us."41Even though newspapers presented reports of continued French and Indian successes, all of the war news in early american papers was no negative. In July 1756, newspapers reported the England had declared war on France in May, do the conflict that began in north America in 1754 a worldwide war.42 Colonists additionally read about plans to rout the French from Canada, a plan that dubbed for seiges the Quebec and Montreal.43 prior to forces native England and also the American colonies could mount attacks on Canada"s main cities, however, English troops and also fleets had to record Louisbourg, the French fortress in ~ the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.Louisbourg had actually been the source of controversy between the English and French for almost fifty years. During King George"s War, Louisbourg played a main role, and also militiamen, mainly from Massachusetts, caught the fortress in June 1745.44 The contract of Aix-la-Chapelle, which ended the war, provided Louisbourg back to the French. This peace concession worried the British homesteaders of Nova Scotia, an English colony because it was seized native France in 1710, and new England. A writer to the Boston Gazette in 1756 warned that Nova Scotia would when again have to be rescued native the "Jaws that Destruction" that the French in ~ Louisbourg.* The fight for Louisbourg and also the island of Cape Breton became important news in American newspapers since the capture of the island and also its fortress would signal the successful completion of the very first phase the the occupation that Canada.The Boston Gazette announced the plan to record Louisbourg and also then all of Canada top top 29 in march 1758:The an excellent Time is at size arrived, when we may retrieve the failure we have actually committed in the conduct of the current War. We have endeavoured in ~ an enormous Charge, only to lop the Branches, there is no laying Ax come the source of the Tree. A united and vigorous attempt upon Canada has actually been long desir"d and expected, together the best method to decision the Contest between us and our persidious Enemies. . . . Canada should be destroyed.Newspaper reports revealed the strategy for the taking of Louisbourg. First, brothers ships, including two hundreds sail indigenous Halifax, set up patrols native Boston transparent the phibìc Atlantic to record French ships or to store them from reaching Louisbourg.45 when the ships patrolled the waters, transports carrying about eight thousand land troops headed because that Halifax to combine the colonial militia and also British regulars stationed there.46 The seige of Louisbourg began on may 22, newspapers reported, once 14,500 british regulars and colonial militiamen left Halifax.47 adhering to the leave of the troops, letters from citizens in Halifax and also from soldiers detailed the bulk of the details that papers printed about the yes, really seige.Transports ferried the troops the two hundred mile from Halifax come Louisbourg where they stormed the beaches with fixed bayonets.48 top top June 10, brother troops had reached "the very Gates the Louisbourg" and also "burnt every the seller Ships in the Harbour that Louisbourg," newspaper reports said.49 by June 24, a letter native an officer explained, Louisbourg was fully shut off from all outside communication and being continuous bombarded by cannon and also mortars.50 due to the fact that news native Louisbourg was so extensive and detailed, the New-York Mercury provided its readers with a woodcut that "the City and Harbour that Louisbourg," which defined the city"s location, the location of English total batteries, and also the proximity of Cape Breton Island come Acadia or Nova Scotia.Under embargo because April and surrounded by English troops for virtually two months, the French in Louisbourg surrendered your garrison July 26. One unsubstantiated report that the surrender was printed by the New-York Mercury on respectable 21, as reported by a new York residents who obtained the info from a girlfriend in Boston. By the next week shown news the the surrender reached brand-new York via letters composed to citizens of Halifax. Hugh Gaine, press of the Mercury, proclaimed prior to the letters, "It gives the press of this record the biggest Pleasure, that he now can with Certainty guarantee his readers of the reduction of the Island that Cape-Breton, and the Fortress of Louisbourg."51 Two various letters confirming the surrender followed, along with the articles of Capitulation and also casualty listings because that the British and also American troops. And also correspondents come newspapers instantly recognized the definition of the fall of Louisbourg. "By this Event," a piece in the Pennsylvannia Gazette proclaimed, "France is deprived that the vital to her North American Trade, and of the method to insult and encroach upon our Settlements."*The victory by the English in ~ Louisbourg likewise produced a new hero because that the American press, a thirty-year-old basic named James Wolfe. Wolfe led the troops that stormed the gateways of Louisbourg and likewise positioned the mortar and also cannon the bombarded the fortress. Yet Wolfe"s heroics were not the only ones reported in the papers, and the win at Louisbourg was the first in a wire of successes for the English. In September, because that example, news reached Annapolis that ft Frontenac, a major French station on the St. Lawrence at Lake Ontario, had fallen to basic John Bradstreet.* The French in Canada to be now reduced off native Europe and also from French troops in the Ohio Valley. The autumn of fort Duquesne under general John Forbes followed,52 and a letter native the Canadian front noted that the French "were in the greatest Confusion in ~ Montreal."53 Within seven months, the last staying French forts in between the brother colonies and CanadaNiagara, Ticonderoga, and also Crown Pointwere every under English control.*With Louisbourg fallen and also with the English in regulate of the major French forts on the Canadian border, newspapers began to suggest that the end of the fighting could be in sight. Pennsylvania governor William Denny announced to all Pennsylvanians that "a work of Publick Thanksgiving" would certainly be observed due to the fact that God had actually heard "the Prayers which to be made by his Servants, in ~ the manifold Troubles and Calamities attending the keep going of a many dangerous War, and also to bless the arms of His Majesty in the food of this Year" because of "many signal Victories, both by Sea and also Land, because that which every British and also Protestant should be dear thankful."54 and a letter writer suggested, "There is no room to doubt the France"s being lessened to great distress, and also involved in almost insuperable difficulties, and that she ardently wishes for peace."55With the French in Canada reeling from major losses, the English, follow to newspapers, began organizing a two-pronged assault on Canada"s key cities, Quebec and Montreal, spearheaded by basic Wolfe from the east and General Jeffrey Amherst, who had directed the Louisbourg seige, native the south. V the war now favoring the British, early american recruits increased. Spontaneous enlistment listed 2,500 militiamen from new York,56 when 5,000 Massachusetts men enlisted for the push right into Canada.57 In addition, reports indigenous ships showing up in Portsmouth, new Hampshire, stated that 12,000 brothers troops in Barbados were currently preparing to join the seige the Canada.58 News reports also suggested that numerous Native American tribes that had fought with the French in the Ohio Valley, brand-new York, and brand-new England were additionally abandoning their previous allies. "Between 500 and also 600 Indians have joined with England and also declared versus the French," a letter writer indigenous Albany educated Pennsylvania Gazette readers,59 while other aboriginal American countries met through the English to kind alliances at fort Pitt, on the site of the razed French fort Duquesne.60 other newspaper reports argued that at least 1,100 aboriginal Americans were hurrying to sign up with the English pressures preparing to attack Canada native the south.61With sufficient supplies and also military forces, the British released their "Expedition against CANADA,"62 in the summer of 1759. Because the English regulated the territory in between their proceeding armies and the main early american ports, news that the invasion of Canada appeared weekly, regardless of the fact that a writer to the Boston Gazette claimed, "it will certainly be very an overwhelming for a weekly news writer to keep pace" v the proceeding army.63 The assault on Canada began with Quebec, about two hundred miles up the St. Lawrence river from Montreal, and also newspaper reports detailed varied information about the attack, Canada, and Quebec itself in job leading as much as the surrender the Canada"s earliest French settlement. Newspaper readers learned in August that Wolfe had actually landed 10,000 men on the Island that Orleans just in former of Quebec, set up batteries the artillery, and also was "burning the country for 50 Miles ring it ."64 an officer with general Wolfe explained Canada as "a Garden, from one end to the other," and then remarked the "all France can"t conserve them from Ruin and Destruction; for we shall burn their Houses, destroy their Corn, and also eat their Cattle."65By the center of September American newspaper reader knew the a significant assault top top Quebec to be probable if the "Manifesto" approve by general Wolfe come the citizens of Quebec to be rejected. The general queried:Are the Canadians ignorant the their current Situation? A respectable Fleet, and also a an effective Army, cut off all the hopes of Succour, which castle otherwise can have supposed from Europe: and another military threatens them on the other side the Continent --- In so crucial a Situation, can they hesitate? What can they intend by Opposition? . . . Let climate the Canadians determine.On one side behold England (whose Sincerity is fine known) supplying them their Effects, and also indulging castle in every Privilege: on the various other side, behold France, inert, and also incapable, abandoning castle in the most an essential Conjuncture.66The Canadian citizens of Quebec and also the French soldiers through them did disapprove Wolfe"s offer, and also Wolfe began an offensive, to draw attention far from general Amherst"s military to the southern of Quebec.67 in ~ a main of news the the attack on Quebec, american learned that "the palliation of QUEBEC, the capital of CANADA" was complete, together English troops beat an army "more than three times ours Number." The rejoicing that should have accompanied the victory was short-lived for Americans, though, because in the very same paragraphs the announced the fall of Quebec, newspaper reader learned "that general WOLFE is among the number of the Killed----His Zeal because that His Majesty"s Honour to be unrivall"d---his Bravery and Activity, together an Officer, had made the the Darling the the Soldiery.-----He live to see the adversary fly before him, and then expired in a full Blaze that Glory."68 Readers likewise heard the Wolfe "died gloriously . . . Quite to be envied than pitied."69For the remainder that 1759 and early into 1760, Americans, through countless newspaper recounts of the capture of Quebec, relived the far-ranging capture that Canada"s capital and the death of a man thought about a hero.* even though the was not true, poems that praise taken into consideration the autumn of Quebec analogous with the defeat of Canada and the French. "Louisbourg reduc"d and also Quebeck subdu"d, our Rights and also Liberties at size secur"d," one poet rejoiced.70 While one more writer declared:When very first thy noble occupation reach"d our Ears,Compleat were every our Hopes, dispell"d ours Fears;Quebec is taken, to be the joyful Note,Quebec is taken, thrills thro" every Throat.71While one more poet declared: "Britons, the work of battle is done! conquest is yours, the battle"s won."72 however in the rejoicing, elegies for basic Wolfe tempered Quebec"s reduction. A writer lamented, "Ev"n Canada was for this reason too dearly bought; the savage, treacherous Race, which to subdue Requir"d no less a Conqueror than You."73After wintering in ~ Quebec and surviving a seige through French forces of the city, the English war initiative prepared to take it Montreal.74 News of French deserters, caught French supply ships, and increasing numbers of native American allied come the English published in early american newspapers no doubt assisted bolster colonial assurances the the battle would shortly end,* as did reports that 14,000 English troops to be assembled external Montreal.75 Newspapers, together they had done for the seige and also capture of Quebec, printed as much news weekly as they could about the attack on Montreal.76 The 8 September 1760 surrender was very first printed in newspapers on September 22. The Boston Gazette declared, "We have actually the many joyful News that the surrender the the City the MONTREAL . . . And also therewith the Surrender of CANADA."77 three days later, the Pennsylvania Gazette put the capitulation that Montreal right into a british perspective:We now have actually the satisfied to congratulate ours Countrymen top top the most crucial Event, together we apprehend, the has ever happened in Favour that the British nation . . . The war in Canada is in ~ an End: The Governor, has actually surrendered the nation to the British basic Amherst there is no Bloodshed. The topics of France are to be sent Home, all that continue to be of the French are to swear Allegiance to His Majesty, and retain your Possessions.78The documents concluded 1760 and also started 1761 through journals and also letters around the taking of Montreal, a background of the war v France since 1748, and the tranquility terms i agreeed to in between General Amherst and the Marquis de Vaudreuil, governor of Canada.79 One writer also painted a photo of bliss in Canada since of british rule: "Those occupants who however lately to be under the tyrannical Yoke the France, currently exult in the Liberty they gain under the brothers Government."*Although peace terms were signed, the fighting between the French and also English would continue sporadically in north America. Yet most the it, follow to newspapers, would be in the Caribbean or in connect with aboriginal American attacks in the southerly colonies. Papers did report one last French effort to retake Canada by attacking Newfoundland in the summer that 1762. After briefly gaining control of the island, however, the French agreed come a final truce with general Amherst top top September 18, complying with an attack by the general"s troops on French pressures in St. Johns.80 Newspapers provided the end of hostilities in between England and also France worldwide early in 1763, v the critical 10 February 1763 peace of Paris showing up in newspapers in May.81
ConclusionNewspaper coverage the the French and also Indian war was "the great running story" the the early american era, together Frank Luther Mott claimed. For a te newspapers very closely covered the battle in all areas of north America and fighting in between the English, French, and also their allies in Europe and also Asia once war between the two powers was claimed globally. This research has actually only debated newspaper coverage the English and French hostilities indigenous the Ohio Valley into Canada and the record of Canada. Thousands of news items that disputed this facet of the war have actually been left out. The remove of the French from Canada to be no doubt the most important aspect of the war to every citizens the British early american America, yet news that the Indians wars in the southern colonies, the war at sea, the battle in the Caribbean, the war in Europe, and the war in the eastern Indies and India, was likewise important. The hundreds of stories on these aspects of the war have been omitted from this study, too. The truth that American newspapers covered all facets of the war is testimony to the war"s significance to the American population. However, by studying only newspaper coverage that the war versus the French indigenous 1754-1760, one can begin to understand how finish a picture of the war papers provided. Unfortunately, most history texts overlook papers as valid resources of historical fact.82Although not the an initial news story of intercolonial importance,83 the French and Indian battle no doubt held the most ramifications for early american America prior to the conflict in between the colonies and England that caused the Revolution. The joined presentation the news and also the sharing of the by early american printers during the French and also Indian War provided a ready resource for common resistance during the rubber stamp Act crisis, which began the year after ~ the French and also Indian battle ended and was part of England"s arrangement to recoup losses occurs in defending America. Because newspapers had reported on a common enemy because that the decade prior to the rubber stamp Act, uniting to fight a common enemy to papers such as the rubber stamp Act had to it is in a logical action for printers.84Newspaper growth throughout the French and also Indian War duration is also an indicator the the prestige of news the the war to the American colonists. Native 1754 to 1760, the variety of newspapers in America boosted 73 percent, indigenous eleven English language papers to nineteen. At the very same time, the populace of the british American nests increased by just 36 percent, from slightly an ext than 1.17 million residents to slightly more than 1.59 million.85 Newspapers flourished at twice the price of the American populace in the duration leading as much as the capitulation that Canada, no doubt because of the desire because that news about the war, a fact confirmed by Isaiah Thomas, first American media historian and also a printer"s apprentice throughout the war. Thomas said, "The war through the French at this time <1755>, in i beg your pardon the British nests were deep interested, increased the demand for public journals."86 In addition, an additional three newspapers were begun in the colonies before the official finish of the French and also Indian battle in 1763.The newspaper coverage the the French and also Indian battle did an ext than carry out American citizens news of an occasion important come them all, a fact that alone makes study that newspapers and the period important. News that the war listed some the the worst and best that journalistic practices. News that the war was filled through propaganda. From branch Dinwiddie"s description of the rape and butchering of innocent English households to the torture of detainees by the French and also Indians, newspaper account of the war created a fear of both the French and also Indians that was not entirely justified. Readers additionally given a portrait that the English as freedom fighters who, as reports indigenous Canada in 1760 noted, freed French Canadians native "the tyrannical yoke of France." in ~ the same time, newspaper printers during the duration increasingly tried to confirm their news stories to provide readers v the many accurate details as possible. This is precisely what New-York Mercury printer Hugh Gaine walk in 1758 v news around the surrender that Louisbourg. Gaine called his readers the he could now "with Certainty" report the autumn of the fortress top top Cape Breton.The newspaper coverage that French and English fighting from the Ohio valley through brand-new England and the "Campaign to the Northward" to record Canada during the French and also Indian war tells the story the a fight for a continent. It showed all the traits of battle news with letters native the front, first-hand fight descriptions, official releases in the kind of terms of surrender, opponent atrocities, letters sustaining the troops, pieces praising soldiers collapse in battle, and also biting blame of the enemy. If the news of the battle did no eradicate all various other news in early american newspapers, the made all other information secondary for virtually ten years.The French and Indian war was the most far-reaching story the the colonial era before the revolutionary period. It assisted mold independent colonies into political bodies dependent ~ above each various other for survival. Benjamin Franklin to be correct in 1754 with his "JOIN, or DIE" snake. The brother American swarms had to join together to repel and conquer the French and their indigenous American allies. The exact same would it is in true because that the colonies twenty years later through the British. Yet Franklin"s line was likewise a an allegory for colonial newspapers. Through joining with each other to present substantial details that a war, newspapers began creating a skilled network for info exchange and dissemination in America that citizens increasingly discovered they might not do without. The desire for information, consequently, created a 73 percent increase in America"s press during the battle period.Coverage the the French and also Indian war by early american newspapers uncovered America"s push joined together to serve the public with the most accurate, complete, and freshest news available.
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The study of newspapers and the news they presented in this era is essential to our expertise of the development of the colonial press. Exactly how newspapers extended the phibìc American war v the French and their loss in Canada is however the very first step.