At the begin of the First human being War, Germany hope to stop fighting on 2 fronts through knocking out France before transforming to Russia, France’s ally. The initial German offensive had some at an early stage success, yet there to be not enough reinforcements immediately obtainable to sustain momentum. The French and British introduced a counter-offensive at the Marne (6-10 September 1914) and after number of days of bitterness fighting the Germans retreated. 

 

Germany’s failure to defeat the French and also the British in ~ the Marne also had important strategic implications. The Russians had mobilised an ext quickly 보다 the Germans had anticipated and also launched their first offensive within two weeks that the war’s outbreak. The fight of Tannenberg in august 1914 ended in German victory, yet the combination of German success in the east and also defeat in the west supposed the war would no be quick, yet protracted and also extended throughout several fronts. 

 




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The battle of the Marne also significant the finish of mobile war on the Western Front. Complying with their retreat, the Germans re-engaged Allied pressures on the Aisne, wherein fighting began to stagnate right into trench warfare. 

 

The opened months the the war brought about profound shock as result of the large casualties led to by modern weapons. Casualty on every fronts because that the year 1914 topped five million, with a million guys killed. This was a range of violence unknown in any kind of previous war. The destructive casualties continual in open warfare supposed that soldiers on all fronts had begun to protect themselves by digging trenches, which would overcome the Western Front until 1918.


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2. Gallipoli


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The Gallipoli campaign (25 April 1915 - 9 January 1916) was the land-based element of a strategy intended to allow Allied ships come pass through the Dardanelles, catch Constantinople (now Istanbul) and ultimately knock ottoman Turkey the end of the war. However Allied plans were based on the mistaken id that the Ottomans can be quickly overcome.  

At dawn ~ above 25 April 1915, ally troops landed on the Gallipoli peninsula in ottoman Turkey. General teacher Ian Hamilton decided come make two landings, placing the brothers 29th division at Cape Helles and the Australian and new Zealand military Corps (ANZAC) north of Gaba Tepe in one area later dubbed Anzac Cove. Both landings to be quickly consisted of by determined Ottoman troops and neither the British no one the Anzacs were able to advance. 


Trench warfare easily took hold, mirroring the fighting that the western Front. Casualties mounted heavily and in the summer heat conditions rapidly deteriorated. Sickness was rampant, food quickly came to be inedible and also there were large swarms of black corpse flies. In respectable a new assault was introduced north that Anzac Cove. This attack, along with a fresh landing at Suvla Bay, conveniently failed and also stalemate returned.  

In December, the was made decision to evacuate – very first Anzac and also Suvla, and also then Helles in January 1916. Gallipoli became a defining moment in the history of both Australia and new Zealand, revealing attributes that both countries have provided to specify their soldiers: endurance, determination, initiative and "mateship". For the Ottomans, it to be a brief respite in the decrease of their empire. Yet through the appearance of Mustafa Kemal (later well-known as Atatürk) as one of the campaign"s top figures, it also led to the foundation of contemporary Turkey.