The physics Geography

The landmass of southern Asia was created by the Indian bowl colliding with the Eurasian Plate. This activity gave climb to the greatest mountain arrays in the world. Destructive earthquakes and also tremors are regular in this seismically active realm. The an excellent size that the Himalayas has actually intensely influenced the beliefs and traditions the the human being in the realm. Some of the mountains are thought about sacred to details religions that exist here.

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The Himalayan Mountains conquer the physics landscape in the northern region of southern Asia.Mt. Everestis the tallest optimal in the world, at 29,035 feet.

Mount Everestas seen from an aircraft from airline companyDrukairinBhutan. The plane is south of the mountains, dealing with north.

Three crucial rivers cross southern Asia, every originating indigenous the Himalayas. TheIndus River, which has actually been a facility of human people for hundreds of years, start in Tibet and also flows with the center of Pakistan.


A map that the Indus river (in French)

TheGanges Riverflows through northern India, producing a core an ar of the country. TheBrahmaputra Riverflows through Tibet and then enters India from the east, whereby it meets up with the Ganges in Bangladesh to flow into the only of Bengal.

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Maldives map

The coastal regions in southern Bangladesh likewise have low elevations. Once the seasonal reversal of winds dubbed themonsoonarrives every year, over there is hefty flooding and also its effect on the facilities of the an ar is disastrous.


The extensiveThar Desertin west India and also parts that Pakistan, on the various other hand, walk not obtain monsoon rains.

Thar Desert map

In fact, much of southwest Pakistan—a an ar calledBaluchistan—is dry, v desert conditions.

Balochistan, Pakistan have the right to be really hot and also dry.

The hills on the border between Pakistan and also Afghanistan expand through Kashmir and then satisfy up v the high varieties of the Himalayas. The Himalayas develop a natural obstacle between India and also China, through the kingdoms the Nepal and also Bhutan acting as buffer says with Tibet. Farther south along the east and west shores of India are shorter mountain ranges dubbed ghats. TheWestern Ghatsreach as high as eight thousands feet, however average about three thousand feet. These ghats are house to one extensive selection of biodiversity. TheEastern Ghatsare no as high together the west Ghats, but have similar physical qualities. The ghats administer a habitat because that a wide variety of animals and also are also home to large coffee and tea estates. TheDeccan Plateaulies between the Eastern and also Western Ghats. TheCentral Indian Plateauand theChota-Nagpur Plateauare situated in the central parts the India, north of the two Ghat ranges. The monsoon rains ensure the an mean of about fifty-two inch of rain every year falls on the Chota-Nagpur Plateau, which has actually a tiger reserve and is additionally a refuge for eastern elephants.

The Monsoon

A monsoon is a seasonal reversal the winds that is connected with heavy rains. The summer monsoon rains—usually falling in between June and September—feed the rivers and streams of south Asia and provide the water required for farming production.

In the summer, the continent heats up, with the Thar Desert fueling the system. The rising warm air create a vacuum that pulls in warmth moist wait from the just of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. This action shifts moisture-laden clouds over the land, where the water is precipitated out in the type of rain.


GeoDiode: The asian Monsoon – The World’s largest Weather System
Western Ghats (in red) and the island that Sri Lanka

The monsoon rains lug moisture to southern Asia right up come the Himalayas. As moisture-laden clouds climb in key in the mountains, the water vapor condenses in the form of rain or snow and feeds the streams and basins that flow into the significant rivers, such as the Brahmaputra, Ganges, and Indus. The Western Ghats creates a similar system in the south along the west coastline of India. Parts of Bangladesh and also eastern India receive as lot as 6 feet of rain during the monsoon season, and also some areas experience major flooding.


The worst-hit places are follow me the coastline of the bay of Bengal, such together in Bangladesh. There is less danger the flooding in west India and also Pakistan, due to the fact that by the moment the rain clouds have moved across India they have actually lost your moisture. Desert problems are evident in the west, close to the Pakistan border in the good Western Ghats and also Sri Lanka. On average, fewer than ten inch of rain fall per year in this substantial desert. Top top the northern rim of the region, the elevation of the Himalayas restricts the warm moist monsoon waiting from moving across the mountain range. The Himalayas act together a precipitation barrier and also create a strong rain shadow result for Tibet and also Western China. The monsoon is responsible for lot of the rainfall in southern Asia.

By October, the system has run that is course and the monsoon season is normally over. In the winter, the cold, dry air above the oriental continent blows come the south, and the winter monsoon is identified by cool, dried winds coming from the north. Southern Asia experiences a dried season throughout the winter months. A similar pattern of rainy summer season and also dry winter season is uncovered in other parts that the world, together as southerly China and some of southeast Asia. A last note about the monsoons: small parts of south Asia, such as Sri Lanka and southeastern India, endure a merganser winter monsoon as well as a merganser summer monsoon. In your case, the winter monsoon winds that come under from the north have a opportunity to pick up moisture from the bay of Bengal before depositing that on their shores.

Colonialism in southern Asia

The force of colonialism was felt about the world, consisting of in south Asia. Southern Asia provides great example that colonialism’s role in establishing most the the present political boundaries in the world. Native the 16 century onward, pearl from colonial Europe began to come in southern Asia to conduct trade. The British eastern India agency was hired in 1600 to profession in Asia and India. They traded in spices, silk, cotton, and also other goods. Later, come take advantage of conflicts and also bitter rivalries in between kingdoms, europe powers began to create colonies. Britain regulated South Asia native 1857 to 1947.


The eastern India company || 400 Years: brother & India || episode 1

Goais the the smallest state in modern India. In the 16 century, that was first encountered by Portuguese traders, who annexed it shortly after arriving.

Goa’s largest city is Vasco da Gama (often shortened to Vasco) and named after the Portuguese explorer.

Goa to be a swarm of Portugal for the following 450 years. Through the mid-1800s, many of the populace of the small area had actually been forcibly converted to Christianity. Numerous of the Hindu traditions, however, survived in the region. Hindu holidays are celebrated amongst the expatriate ar in India. Christian holidays are additionally celebrated, specifically Christmas and Easter. The cathedrals and secular design in many of the historic buildings of Goa space European in style, reflecting its Portuguese origins. This style is in your ar termed “Indo-Portuguese.” Goa was one of the longest-held colonial possessions in the world. It was finally annexed to India in 1961.

Buildings in Goa

The brother no longer regulated South Asia after 1947. Local resistance and also the devastating effects of human being War II intended the british Empire might not be managed as it when was. An excellent Britain pulled far from empire structure to focus on its own redevelopment. Top top the British withdrawal from India, Britain establish the immense cultural differences between the Muslims and Hindus and also created political boundaries based upon those differences.West Pakistanwas sculpted out of west India;East Pakistanwas sculpted from east India. However, the new borders separating Hindu and Muslim majorities ran through populace groups, and some the the population now found itself to it is in on the wrong next of the border. The West Pakistan-India partition thrived into a tragic civil war, as Hindus and also Muslims struggled to migrate to their nation of choice. More than one million world died in the polite war, a war that is still described in today’s politics dialogue in between Pakistan and India. TheSikhs, that are indigenous to thePunjabregion in the middle, also suffered greatly. Some human being decided not to migrate, which explains why India has actually the biggest Muslim populace of any type of non-Muslim state.


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Another civil war would erupt in 1973 between West Pakistan and also East Pakistan. As soon as the says were an initial created in 1947, they activate under the same government regardless of having no usual border and also being end nine hundred mile apart and also populated by people with no ethnic similarities. The civil war lasted around three months and resulted in the creation of the sovereign nations of Pakistan and also Bangladesh (formerly east Pakistan). The name Bangladesh is based on the Bengali ethnicity of many of the people who live there. Both Pakistan and Bangladesh are among the top ten most populous nations in the world.

Language is probably one of the an ext pervasive ways that Europeans affected South Asia. In modern-day India and Pakistan, English is the language of choice in second education (English-medium schools). The is often the language used by the government and military. Unlike many other oriental countries, lot of the signage and advertising in Pakistan and also India is in English, also in countryside areas. Educated civilization switch earlier and forth, utilizing English indigenous or whole English sentences during conversation in their native tongue. Some scholars have termed this Hinglish or Urglish as the basic languages of north India and also Pakistan room Hindi and also Urdu, respectively.


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The British game of cricket is vital cultural and national sport within this eastern subcontinent. The consistent conflict between the nations of India and also Pakistan are reflected in the intense rivalry in between their national cricket teams.

South Asia’s Population

South Asia has three the the ten many populous countries in the world. India is the second largest in the world, and also Pakistan and also Bangladesh space numbers five and six, respectively. Large populations room a product of big family sizes and also a high fertility rate. The rural population of south Asia has actually traditionally had huge families. ~ above the other hand, the least densely populated nation in south Asia is the Kingdom the Bhutan. Bhutan has actually a populace density of only fifty human being per square mile. Bhutan is like the mountain with tiny arable land.

Bhutan has numerous mountains.

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South Asia’s growing population has put exceedingly high requirements on agricultural production. The quantity of area easily accessible for food production split by the populace may it is in a much more helpful indicator of populace distribution 보다 total population density. For example, big portions that Pakistan are deserts and also mountains that do not provide arable land because that food production. India has actually the Thar Desert and the northern mountains. Nepal has actually the Himalayas. The tiny country that the Maldives, with its numerous islands, has almost no arable land. The number of people every square mile that arable land, i beg your pardon is called thephysiologic density, can be crucial indicator the a country’s status. Total population densities space high in southern Asia, yet the physiologic densities room even much more astounding. In Bangladesh, because that example, more than 5 thousand civilization depend ~ above every square mile of arable land. In Sri Lanka, the physiologic density reaches to an ext than 6,000 people per square mile, and also in Pakistan, the is an ext than 2,400. Southern Asia will likely face serious resource shortages in the future.

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Additional information and image credits:MonsoonWikimedia Commons= windy domain.Western GhatsBy Gossipguy – very own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=16107359Thar Desert location mapBy w:user:Planemad – own workInternational Borders: university of Texas map library – India political map 2001Disputed Borders: university of Texas map library – China-India borders – east Sector 1988 & west Sector 1988 – Kashmir an ar 2004 – Kashmir Maps.State and also District boundaries: Census the India – 2001 Census State Maps – inspection of India Maps.Other sources: US military Map Service, survey of India Map Explorer, Columbia University, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1138507India relief mapBy India_relief_location_map.jpg: Uwe Dederingderivative work: 배우는사람 (talk) – India_relief_location_map.jpg, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=12078674Mt. EverestBy Mount_Everest_as_seen_from_Drukair2.jpg: shrimpo1967derivative work: Papa Lima Whiskey 2 (talk) – This record was obtained from: mountain Everest as viewed from Drukair2.jpg:, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18262217Indus river mapCC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=82986567Ganges mapBy Pfly – very own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15068725Maldives mapBy OCHA, CC by 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=32649297BalochistanBy Furqanlw – very own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=59334545GoaBy फ़िलप्रो (Filpro) – File:India dark grey.svg, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=50825308Goa buildingsBy Portugal Editor expedition – very own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=37093789BhutanCC BY-SA 2.5, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1572172