What is a Merger?

A merger refers to an agreementDefinitive purchase AgreementA definitive Purchase covenant (DPA) is a legal document that documents the terms and also conditions in between two service providers that enter into an covenant for a merger, acquisition, divestiture, joint venture, or some kind of strategy alliance. That is a support binding contract in which 2 companies sign up with together to form one company. In various other words, a merger is the combination of 2 companies into a single legal entity. In this article, we will certainly look in ~ different types of mergers that companies can undergo.

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Types that Mergers

There are five straightforward categories or varieties of mergers:

Horizontal merger: A merger in between companies that are in direct competition v each various other in regards to product lines and marketsVertical merger: A closing betweencompanies that space along the exact same supply chain (e.g., a retail agency in the auto parts sector merges through a company that supplies raw products for auto parts.)Market-extension merger: A merger between companies in various markets the sell comparable products or servicesProduct-extension merger: A merger between companies in the same sectors that offer different however related commodities or servicesConglomerate merger: A merger in between companies in unrelated business tasks (e.g., a clothing agency buys a software application company)

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Horizontal Mergers

A horizontal mergerHorizontal MergerA horizontal mergers occurs when companies operating in the very same or comparable industry combine together. The objective of a horizontal mergers is to more is a merger between companies that directly complete with each other. Horizontal mergers room done to increase market powerMarket PositioningMarket positioning refers come the capacity to influence consumer perception about a brand or product loved one to competitors. The objective of market (market share), further utilize economic situations of scaleEconomies that ScaleEconomies that scale refer to the cost benefit experienced by a firm once it increases its level that output.The benefit arises because of the, and exploit closing synergies.

A famous example of a horizontal merger to be that between HP (Hewlett-Packard) and also Compaq in 2011. The effective merger between these two companies developed a an international technology leader valued at over US$87 billion.


Vertical Mergers

A vertical mergerVertical MergerA vertical merger is a union in between two companies in the same industry however at various stages the the production process. In other words, a vertical merger is a merger in between companies that operate along the exact same supply chain. A upright merger is the mix of providers along the production and also distribution process of a business. The reason behind a upright merger includes higher quality control, far better flow of details along the supply chain, and merger synergies.

Anotable vertical merger happened in between America Online and Time Warner in 2000. The mergers was considered a vertical merger due to each company’s different operations in the supply chain – Time Warner supplied details through CNN and Time magazine while AOL dispersed information v the internet.


Market-Extension Mergers

A market-extension mergers is a merger between companies that sell the same commodities or services yet that operate in various markets. The score of a market-extension mergers is come gain access to a bigger market and also thus a bigger client/customer base.

For example, RBC Centura’s merger through Eagle Bancshares Inc. In 2002 was a market-extension mergers that aided RBC through its farming operations in the phibìc American market. Eagle Bancshares owned Tucker federal Bank, among the biggest banks in Atlanta, through over 250 workers and $1.1 exchange rate in assets.


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Product-Extension Mergers

A product-extension closing is a merger in between companies that offer related products or services and also that operate in the very same market. By employing a product-extension merger, the merged company is maybe to group their commodities together and also gain access to more consumers. It is crucial to keep in mind that the products and also services that both companies are no the same, however they space related. The crucial is that they utilize similar distribution channels and also common, or related, production processions or it is provided chains.

For example, the merger between Mobilink Telecom Inc. And Broadcom is a product-extension merger. The two suppliers both run in the electronics industry and also the resulting merger enabled the carriers to combine technologies. The merger enabled the combination of Mobilink’s 2G and also 2.5G innovations with Broadcom’s 802.11, Bluetooth, and also DSP products. Therefore, the two service providers are able to sell assets that complement each other.


Learn around modeling different types of merger in CFI’s M&A gaue won Modeling Course.

Conglomerate Mergers

A conglomerate mergerConglomerate MergerA Conglomerate mergers is a union in between companies that run in different industries and also are connected in distinct, unrelated service activities. Conglomerate closing are separated into pure conglomerate mergers and also mixed conglomerate mergers. Is a merger in between companies the are completely unrelated. There are two varieties of a conglomerate merger: pure and also mixed.

A pure conglomerate merger entails companies that are entirely unrelated and also that operate in unique markets.A mixed conglomerate merger entails companies that space looking to increase product currently or target markets.

The biggest risk in a conglomerate mergers is the immediate transition in business operations result from the merger, as the two companies run in totally different markets and also offer unrelated products/services.

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For example, the merger between Walt Disney firm and the American Broadcasting firm (ABC) to be a conglomerate merger. Walt Disney agency is an entertainment company, when American Broadcasting company is a us commercial broadcast television network (media and also news company).


More Resources

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