Which tree mirrors the greatest evolutionary distance between chytrids and also ascomycetes?

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV


In the phylogenetic trees, numbers stand for species, and the same species are displayed in both trees. I m sorry two species are stood for as sister species in Tree 2 but are not presented as sister types in Tree 1?

A) 1 and 2

B) 2 and 3

C) 3 and 4

D) 4 and 5


The legless problem that is it was observed in several teams of extant reptiles is the an outcome of ________.

You are watching: To apply parsimony to constructing a phylogenetic tree, _____.

A) their usual ancestor having been legless

B) a mutual adaptation come an arboreal (living in trees) lifestyle

C) number of instances of the legless condition arising independently of every other

D) separation, personal, instance lizards adapting to a fossorial (living in burrows) lifestyle during their lifetimes


The miscellaneous taxonomic level (for example, phyla, genera, classes) that the hierarchical group system different from each various other on the communication of ________.

A) exactly how widely the biology assigned to each are dispersed throughout the environment

B) your inclusiveness

C) the family member genome sizes of the biology assigned come each

D) morphological personalities that room applicable to all organisms


If biology A, B, and also C belong to the same class however to various orders and also if organisms C, D, and also E belong come the exact same order yet to different families, i beg your pardon of the complying with pairs of organisms would be supposed to display the greatest degree of structure homology?

A) A and D

B) B and D

C) B and C

D) D and E


Carolus Linnaeus believed that species remained addressed in the type in i beg your pardon they had been created. Linnaeus would have actually been uncomfortable v ________.

A) a hierarchical classification scheme

B) taxonomy

C) phylogenies

D) nested, progressively inclusive category of organisms


The best classification mechanism is the which most very closely ________.

A) hold together organisms that possess comparable morphologies

B) conforms come traditional, Linnaean taxonomic practices

C) shows evolutionary history

D) mirrors the basic separation that prokaryotes native eukaryotes


Based on this tree, which statement is correct?

A) The human being lineage is a basal taxon.

B) Salamanders are a sister team to the team containing lizards, goats, and also humans.

C) Salamanders room as very closely related come lizards regarding humans.

D) Goats are an ext closely pertained to salamanders 보다 to humans.


The adhering to phylogeny reflects six living types (a-f) and five ancestral (now extinct) types (#1-5). If the phylogeny had actually been occurred on the communication of similarities in bone structure, i beg your pardon of the complying with predictions would certainly you do in regards to the structure of a details enzyme?

A) The enzymes of species b and f are really similar.

B) The enzymes of types b and also c are much more similar come ancestor #4 보다 to ancestor 2

C) The enzymes of varieties a and also b are the very same as that of ancestor #2.

D) The enzyme of species c is very similar to the of types d.


Some beetles and also flies have actually antler-like frameworks on your heads, lot like male deer. The presence of antlers in beetle, fly, and deer species with solid male-male competition is an example of ________.

A) convergent evolution

B) similarity due to shared ancestry

C) homology

D) parsimony


The ax convergent evolution is many applicable come which of the following features?

A) the legless problem found in miscellaneous lineages of extant lizards

B) the five-digit condition of human being hands and also bat wings

C) the fur that covers Australian moles and North American moles

D) the skeleton of bat forelimbs and the bones of bird forelimbs


If, someday, one archaean cell is found whose rRNA sequence is much more similar to that of people than the sequence of mouse rRNA is to the of humans, the finest explanation for this evident discrepancy would certainly be ________.

A) homology

B) convergent evolution

C) common ancestry

D) retro-evolution through humans


Which that the complying with pairs are the ideal examples that homologous structures?

A) eyelessness in the Australian mole and also eyelessness in the phibìc American mole

B) owl wing and also hornet wing

C) bat wing and bird wing

D) skeleton in the bat wing and also bones in the person forelimb


Some molecule data ar the giant panda in the bear family (Ursidae) yet place the lesser panda in the raccoon family members (Procyonidae). If the molecule data best reflect the evolutionary background of these 2 groups, then the morphological similarities of these two types is most likely as result of ________.

A) the inheritance of obtained characteristics

B) sexual selection

C) possession the analogous (convergent) traits

D) possession of shared primitive characters


The prestige of computers and also of computer software to contemporary systematics s is most very closely linked to advancements in ________.

A) irradiate microscopy

B) radiometric dating

C) fossil discovery techniques

D) molecular genetics


The usual ancestors of birds and also mammals were very early (stem) reptiles, which practically certainly possessed three-chambered hearts (two atria, one ventricle). Birds and also mammals, however, space alike in having actually four-chambered hearts (two atria, 2 ventricles). The four-chambered hearts of birds and mammals are ideal described together ________.

A) structure homologies

B) vestiges

C) structure analogies

D) the an outcome of common ancestry


Imagine the a phylogeny was emerged for a team of mammals based on bone structure. I beg your pardon of the complying with statements would be a reasonable prediction around a phylogeny for the same group of species based top top similarities and also differences in the structure of a particular enzyme?

A) The same phylogeny would certainly be unlikely.

B) The exact same phylogeny would be predicted.

C) No prediction could be made.

D) The amino mountain sequence would certainly be the same in every species.


According come the phylogenetic tree in the number above, G. Intestinalis constitutes a ________ group.

A) analytic

B) monophyletic

C) polyphyletic

D) paraphyletic


By analyzing the phylogenetic tree diagrammed in the number above, what conclusion can you draw about the species G. Microti?

A) it evolved before G. Intestinalis.

B) the is more closely concerned G. Muris than to G. Intestinalis.

C) It must not be labeling a species distinct indigenous G. Intestinalis.

D) the is component of a monophyletic team that also includes G. Intestinalis.


Which that the following alters would a modern-day systematist it is in most most likely to make after finding out of the results of the rRNA analyses?

A) continue to keep subgroups A-D together members the the varieties G. Intestinalis

B) rest the species G. Intestinalis into four separate species, A, B, C, and also D

C) incorporate subgroup D and G. Microti into one species

D) incorporate all the subgroups that G. Intestinalis (A-D) and G. Microti to do one species


Refer to the figure. I beg your pardon of the complying with forms a monophyletic group?

A) A, B, C, D

B) C and D

C) D, E, and F

D) E, F, and also G


Which of the adhering to trees, if any, depicts the same relationship among species as shown above?

(Graph)


Which the the following would it is in most valuable in developing a phylogenetic tree of a taxon?

A) morphological data from fossil and also living species

B) a expertise of color patterns in fossil and also living species

C) a understanding of mutation prices in contemporary species

D) morphological data from fossil species


Your professor desires you to construct a phylogenetic tree the orchids. She offers you organization from seven orchid species and one lily. What is the most likely reason she provided you the lily?

A) to offer as an outgroup

B) to watch if the lily is a cryptic orchid species

C) to check out if the lily and also the orchids present all the same shared acquired characters

D) to demonstrate likely homoplasies


Which the the complying with statements ideal describes the reason for using the principle of maximum parsimony in creating phylogenetic trees?

A) Parsimony enables the researcher to "root" the tree.

B) Similarity due to typical ancestry should be much more common than similarity as result of convergent evolution.

C) The molecular clock validates the rule of parsimony.

D) The outgroup roots the tree, allowing the rule of parsimony to it is in applied.


Applying the rule of parsimony to the properties "ability to fly," i beg your pardon of the 2 phylogenetic tree is better?

A) Tree 1

B) Tree 2

C) Both trees room equally parsimonious.

D) since the trees show different evolutionary relationships, friend cannot recognize which is more parsimonious.


Which of the following statements is accurate with regard come a phylogeny, as stood for by a phylogenetic tree?

A) Descendant groups (branches) indigenous the exact same node likely share numerous derived characters.

B) A monophyletic group can it is in properly based on convergent features.

C) The genealogical group often has all the derived personalities of the descendant species.

D) Shared genealogical characters are excellent traits to use in occurring a phylogeny.


Given that phylogenies are based on shared derived characteristics, i m sorry of the adhering to traits is advantageous in generating a phylogeny of varieties W, X, Y, and also Z?

A) properties 1

B) characteristics 2

C) trait 3

D) properties 1, 2, and 3


Which of the complying with is (are) problematic when the goal is to build phylogenies the accurately reflect evolutionary history?

A) polyphyletic taxa

B) paraphyletic taxa

C) monophyletic taxa

D) polyphyletic taxa and also paraphyletic taxa


Phylogenetic trees constructed from proof from molecule systematics are based upon similarities in ________.

A) morphology

B) the pattern of embryological development

C) biochemical pathways

D) mutations come homologous genes


There is some proof that reptiles referred to as cynodonts might have had whisker-like hairs about their mouths. If true, then hair is a mutual ________.

A) derived character the mammals, even if cynodonts continue to be classified together reptiles

B) acquired character of every vertebrates and also not the the mammal clade

C) genealogical character of the every vertebrates, yet only if cynodonts are reclassified together mammals

D) derived character that mammals, yet only if cynodonts space reclassified as mammals


Which extinct species should be the finest candidate to offer as the outgroup because that the clade whose common ancestor occurs at position 2 in the figure?

A) A

B) B

C) C

D) E


If the figure above is precise depiction that relatedness, then which that the adhering to should be precise statement?

A) The entire tree is based upon minimum parsimony.

B) If all species depicted here make up a taxon, this taxon is paraphyletic.

C) The last usual ancestor of species B and also C occurred an ext recently 보다 the last typical ancestor of types D and also E.

D) varieties A is the straight ancestor the both species B and types C.


If the figure is an exact depiction of relatedness, then which the the following should be precise statement?

A) If all varieties depicted here comprise a taxon, this taxon is monophyletic.

B) The species present at place 4 is ancestral to species E, but not species D.

C) varieties C is more closely associated to varieties B than D is come B

D) The species present at position 3 is genealogical to C, D, and also E.


Humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans space members of a clade referred to as the an excellent apes, which shared a usual ancestor around 15 million year ago. Gibbons and siamangs consist of a clade called the lesser apes. Tree-branch lengths indicate elapsed time.

Assuming chimps and gorillas room humans" closestly relatives, removing humans from the an excellent ape clade and also placing lock in a various clade has the impact of do the phylogenetic tree that the an excellent apes ________.

A) polyphyletic

B) paraphyletic

C) monophyletic

D) into a new order


The inquiry refers come the adhering to table, i beg your pardon compares the percent sequence homology that four various parts (two introns and two exons) that a gene the is found in five various eukaryotic species. Each component is numbered to show its street from the promoter (for example, Intron i is the one closest come the promoter). The data reported for types A were derived by compare DNA native one member of species A to another member of species A.

Based top top the tabular data, and assuming the time advances vertically, which phylogenetic tree is the most likely depiction the the evolution relationships amongst these 5 species?


Regarding these sequence homology data, the principle of maximum parsimony would be applicable in ________.

A) separating introns from exons

B) determining level of succession homology

C) selecting appropriate genes because that comparison amongst species

D) inferring evolution relatedness indigenous the number of sequence differences


In a comparison of birds and mammals, having 4 limbs is ________.

A) a shared ancestral character

B) a shared acquired character

C) a character advantageous for distinguishing birds indigenous mammals

D) an instance of analogy fairly than homology


To use the principle of maximum parsimony to construction of a phylogenetic tree, ________.

A) choose the tree the assumes every evolutionary alters are equally probable

B) pick the tree in which the branch point out are based on as numerous shared derived characters as possible

C) choose the tree that represents the fewest evolution changes, either in DNA assignment or morphology

D) choose the tree with the fewest branch points


If girlfriend were utilizing cladistics to develop a phylogenetic tree that cats, i beg your pardon of the complying with would be the finest outgroup?

A) lion

B) residential cat

C) wolf


The phylogenetic tree displayed ________.

A) depicts uncertainty around whether the bryophytes or the vascular plants advanced first

B) depicts an evolutionary hypothesis

C) includes evolution of convergent characteristics

D) indicates that seeds are a shared ancestral character of every vascular plants


In figure 26.4, which an in similar way inclusive taxon is stood for as descending native the same usual ancestor as Canidae?

A) Felidae

B) Mustelidae

C) Carnivora

D) Lutra


Three living types X, Y, and also Z re-superstructure a usual ancestor T, as perform extinct types U and V. A group that consists of species T, X, Y, and Z (but no U or V) makes up

A) a monophyletic taxon.

B) one ingroup, with types U together the outgroup.

C) a paraphyletic group.

D) a polyphyletic group.


Based top top the tree below, i m sorry statement is not correct?

A) Goats and humans type a sister group.

B) Salamanders room a sister group to the team containing lizards, goats, and also humans.

C) Salamanders space as very closely related come goats regarding humans.

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D) Lizards are more closely concerned salamanders 보다 to humans.


The loved one lengths the the frog and also mouse branches in the phylogenetic tree in number 26.13 indicate that