Learning Objectives

Describe the three stages of memory storageDistinguish between implicit and explicit memory and semantic and episodic memory

Once the information has actually been encoded, us somehow need to retain it. Ours brains take the encoded information and place the in storage. Storage is the development of a permanent record that information.

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In order for a memory to get in storage (i.e., irreversible memory), it has to pass with three distinctive stages: Sensory Memory, Short-Term Memory, and also finally Long-Term Memory. This stages were an initial proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin (1968). Their design of human being memory (Figure 1), referred to as Atkinson and also Shiffrin’s model, is based upon the id that we procedure memories in the same means that a computer processes information.

Figure 2. Occupational through this collection of numbers using the recall practice explained over to identify the longest cable of digits that you can store.


Note the longest string in ~ which you acquired the collection correct. For many people, the capacity will more than likely be close come 7 plus or minus 2. In 1956, George müller reviewed most of the study on the capacity of temporary memory and also found that world can retain between 5 and also 9 items, for this reason he report the volume of short-term memory was the “magic number” 7 add to or minus 2. However, more modern research has found working memory capacity is 4 add to or minus 1 (Cowan, 2010). Generally, recall is somewhat better for random numbers 보다 for random letter (Jacobs, 1887) and additionally often slightly much better for info we listen (acoustic encoding) rather than info we check out (visual encoding) (Anderson, 1969).

Memory trace decay and also interference room two determinants that influence short-term memory retention. Peterson and Peterson (1959) investigated short-term memory using the 3 letter sequences dubbed trigrams (e.g., CLS) that had actually to it is in recalled after various time intervals in between 3 and also 18 seconds. Entrants remembered about 80% of the trigrams after ~ a 3-second delay, however only 10% ~ a delay of 18 seconds, which brought about them come conclude that short-term memory decayed in 18 seconds. During decay, the memory trace becomes less activated end time, and also the information is forgotten. However, Keppel and also Underwood (1962) examined just the very first trials of the trigram task and found the proactive interference also impacted short-term storage retention. During proactive interference, previously learned details interferes v the ability to learn new information. Both memory trace decay and proactive interference impact short-term memory. When the information reaches irreversible memory, it needs to be consolidated in ~ both the synaptic level, which takes a few hours, and also into the memory system, which have the right to take weeks or longer.

Long-term Memory

Long-term memory (LTM) is the continuous storage that information. Unlike temporary memory, long-term memory storage capacity is thought to it is in unlimited. It encompasses all the things you deserve to remember the happened more than simply a couple of minutes ago. One cannot really consider long-term storage without thinking around the means it is organized. Really quickly, what is the an initial word that involves mind as soon as you hear “peanut butter”? Did girlfriend think the jelly? If girlfriend did, you most likely have linked peanut butter and jelly in your mind. That is generally welcomed that memories are arranged in semantic (or associative) networks (Collins & Loftus, 1975). A semantic network is composed of concepts, and also as you may recall from what did you do it learned around memory, principles are categories or groupings of linguistic information, images, ideas, or memories, such together life experiences. Although individual experiences and expertise can impact concept arrangement, ideas are thought to be arranged hierarchically in the mental (Anderson & Reder, 1999; Johnson & Mervis, 1997, 1998; Palmer, Jones, Hennessy, Unze, & Pick, 1989; Rosch, Mervis, Gray, Johnson, & Boyes-Braem, 1976; Tanaka & Taylor, 1991). Related ideas are linked, and also the toughness of the connect depends top top how frequently two ideas have been associated.

Semantic networks different depending on personal experiences. Importantly for memory, activating any part of a semantic network additionally activates the concepts linked come that component to a lesser degree. The process is recognized as spreading activation (Collins & Loftus, 1975). If one component of a network is activated, it is easier to accessibility the linked concepts because they are already partially activated. As soon as you psychic or remind something, girlfriend activate a concept, and the related principles are much more easily remembered because they are partially activated. However, the activations do not spread in just one direction. When you mental something, girlfriend usually have actually several paths to gain the details you are trying come access, and the an ext links you have to a concept, the far better your possibilities of remembering.

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There room two varieties of irreversible memory: explicit and also implicit (Figure 8.6). Understanding the difference in between explicit memory and implicit storage is important because aging, particular species of mind trauma, and certain disorders can influence explicit and implicit memory in various ways. Explicit memories space those us consciously shot to remember, recall, and also report. Because that example, if you room studying for her chemistry exam, the material you are discovering will be component of your explicit memory. In maintaining with the computer system analogy, some info in your permanent memory would certainly be prefer the details you have saved top top the difficult drive. The is no there ~ above your desktop (your momentary memory), yet most of the time you have the right to pull up this info when you want it. No all permanent memories are strong memories, and some memories can only be recalled utilizing prompts. For example, you could easily remind a fact, such as the funding of the joined States, yet you can struggle come recall the surname of the restaurant in ~ which you had actually dinner as soon as you went to a adjacent city critical summer. A prompt, such together that the restaurant was named after that is owner, might help you recall the surname of the restaurant. Explicit memory is periodically referred to together declarative memory, due to the fact that it deserve to be put right into words. Explicit storage is split into episodic memory and semantic memory.