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Anatomy, Bony Pelvis and Lower Limb, Femoral Muscles
Alyssa L. Ransom; Margaret A. Sinkler; Shivajee V. Nallamothu.Author Information
The muscle of the femoral an ar of the reduced limb are separated into 3 compartments; the anterior or extensor, medial or adductor, and posterior or flexor compartments. Each compartment is separated native the others by one intermuscular septum that runs indigenous the fascia lata to the linea aspera the the femur. The anterior compartment has pectineus, iliopsoas, psoas minor, iliacus, sartorius, and also quadriceps muscles. These muscles arise indigenous the hip, spine, and also proximal femur. The medial compartment is made up of the adductor magnus, adductor longus, adductor brevis, gracilis, and obturator externus. These muscles originate close to the anteroinferior external surface of the bony pelvis and also insert in ~ the linea aspera. The posterior compartment is consisted of of a group of muscles called the hamstrings, including semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris. This muscles arise indigenous the ischial tuberosity and also the femur and insert top top the medial tibia and lateral fibula.<1><2><3>
Structure and Function
The 3 compartments the the femoral region each have a unique function. The anterior or extensor compartment is responsible because that flexion the the hip and also extension that the knee. The posterior or flexor compartment is the element extensors of the hip and also flexors the the knee. The medial or adductor compartment is created of the adductors of the thigh.<4><5>
Fascial compartments separate the muscles of the thigh to create the compartments outlined above. The intermuscular septae are extensions of the fascia lata and also attach to the linea aspera of the femur. The lateral intermuscular septum off the anterior and posterior compartments. The medial intermuscular septum off the anterior and also medial compartments. The posterior intermuscular septum off the medial and also posterior compartments.
The fascia lata is the deep fascia neighboring the thigh, and this fascia layer action to limit the outward development of the thigh muscles. The iliotibial (IT) tract is a thickened portion of the fascia that is found on the lateral aspect of the thigh. The aponeurosis of the tensor fasciae latae and also gluteus maximus muscles additionally contribute come the that tract. Worse to the inguinal ligament, the saphenous opening permits for the i of the good saphenous vein.
The pectineus adducts, flexes, and also assists in medial rotation of the thigh. The pectineus is a small square muscle the is discovered in the superomedial area of the thigh. Originating native the exceptional pubic ramus and also inserting top top the pectineal line of the femur.<6><7><8>
The iliopsoas is made up of the psoas significant and minor and the iliacus. This muscles job-related together to flex the i know well joint and stabilize this joint throughout standing. The psoas significant originates indigenous the transverse processes of the T12 come L5 vertebrae. The psoas major then passes down with the pelvis and also under the inguinal ligament to insert on the lesser trochanter the the femur. The psoas minor discovered anterior to the psoas significant originates indigenous the T12 v L1 vertebrae and then inserts ~ above the pectineal line. The iliacus originates indigenous the iliac crest, iliac fossa, ala that the sacrum, and anterior sacroiliac ligaments. It joins the psoas muscle traveling deep come the inguinal ligament and inserts top top the tendon that the psoas major and the distal component of the lesser trochanter the the femur.
The sartorius flexes, abducts, and also laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint. It also aids in the flexion that the knee joint and also the medial rotation the the leg in this position. The sartorius is a lengthy band-like muscle that runs lateral come medial, cross the anterior element of the thigh. The originates indigenous the anterior premium iliac spine and also runs superficially to the quadriceps muscles, and also inserts top top the superomedial surface ar of the tibia via the pes anserinus. It is the longest muscle in the body.
The quadriceps include four big muscles, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius. The quadriceps femoris is among the strongest muscle groups in the body that covers the anterior element of the femur. This team of muscles has a usual function. They prolong the leg in ~ the knee joint. The rectus femoris has an additional role in stability the hip joint and aiding in the flexion the the thigh. The rectus femoris originates from the anterior worse iliac spine. It is named for that course right down the anterior part of the thigh. The vastus lateralis is the biggest muscle in the quadriceps. The vastus lateralis originates from the better trochanter and is uncovered on the lateral facet of the thigh. The vastus medialis originates native the intertrochanteric line and also medial lip of the linea aspera that the femur. That covers the medial element of the femur. Vastus intermedius originates native the anterior and lateral tower of the femur. It deserve to be discovered lying in between the vastus lateral is and the vastus medialis, simply deep come the rectus femoris. The quadriceps tendon is a usual tendon because that all four quadriceps muscles, which inserts into the patella. The patellar ligament extends native the patella come the tibial tuberosity.
The hamstring is composed of a group of 3 muscles.
The semitendinosus extends the hip and also flexes the knee. The muscles originate in ~ the ischial tuberosity and insert at the medial surface of the tibial via a structure dubbed the pes anserinus.
The semimembranosus expand the thigh, flexes the leg, and medially rotates the leg once the knee is flexed. The muscle originates top top the ischial tuberosity and also inserts top top the medial condyle that the tibia.
The biceps femoris flexes the leg and, as soon as the knee is flexed, rotates it laterally, and also aids in the expansion of the thigh. The biceps femoris has a long and also short head. The long head originates ~ above the ischial tuberosity and inserts on the head the the fibula. This head receives innervation indigenous the tibial section of the sciatic nerve. The short head of the biceps femoris originates ~ above the linea aspera the the femur and inserts on the head the the fibula. This head receives innervations indigenous the fibular portion of the sciatic nerve.
The adductor longus is a major adductor the the thigh. The muscle is the many anterior in the group. The fans the end from its beginning on the anterior aspect of the pubis and also inserts top top the linea aspera of the femur. That covers both the anterior section of the adductor brevis and the central portion that the adductor magnus.
The adductor brevis aids in adduction that the thigh and, come a lesser extent, flexion. The adductor brevis is the smallest of the group, lying simply deep come the pectineus and also adductor longus. The originates indigenous the body and inferior ramus of the pubis and also inserts on the proximal section of the linea aspera. This muscle divides the obturator nerve right into an anterior and also posterior division.
The adductor magnus contains both an adductor component and a hamstring part. The adductor part adducts and also flexes the thigh. The hamstring component extends and also adducts the thigh. The adductor magnus is the biggest of the adductor muscles and also is the many posterior the the adductor muscles, crossing into the posterior compartment. The adductor section originates native the inferior ramus that the pubis and inserts on the linea aspera and the medial supracondylar ridge. This section of the muscle has an opened in the tendon, allowing for the passage of essential vessels come the posterior next of the knee. The hamstring part originates indigenous the ischial tuberosity and also inserts ~ above the adductor tubercle of the femur.
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The gracilis adducts the thigh, flexes the leg, and aids in medial rotation that the leg. The gracilis is the weakest and most medial of the adductor muscles. It deserve to be recognized by its lengthy slender appearance. It crosses both the hip and the knee joint, originating from the body and inferior pubic rami, and inserts with two various other muscles in the pes anserinus, i beg your pardon attaches to the medial surface ar of the tibia.
The obturator externus is a lateral rotator of the thigh and also is a major stabilizer that the head the the femur in the acetabulum. The obturator externus is a tiny muscle uncovered in the superomedial area of the thigh. The muscle originates indigenous the outside surface of the obturator membrane and inserts top top the posterior side of the better trochanter. It overcome distally come the neck the the femur and also the acetabulum.