~ the facility of the roman Republic, the next period of Roman history is identified a long project of conquest, in i m sorry Rome extended its preeminence from the banks of the Tiber come the shores the the Italian peninsula. Rome slowly expanded its territory in the centuries after the Republic was started through skirmishes with rival states. The Etruscan says to the north were linked in the fifth century B.C. And the Samnites and Greek nests to the southern were absorbed in the soon and 3rd century B.C.
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Important problems laying the means for the production of the roman Empire had the annexation of Etruscan Veii, the very first city state linked by Rome, in 396 B.C." the looting of Rome by the Gauls in 390 B.C." and the loss of the Samnite alliance in 295 B.C. Geese famously warmed the Romans that the Gallic intrusion in 390 B.C.
Through army expansion, colonization, and the providing of citizenship to dominated tribesmen, Rome annexed all the territory southern of the Po in present-day Italy throughout a hundred duration before 268 B.C.. Latin and Italic tribes were took in first, complied with by Etruscans and also the Greek colonies in south.
One notable battle that the Romans shed took place in 280 B.C. In northwest Greece. King Pyrrhus of Epirus overcome the Adriatic with force of 20,000 men and some elephants and also fought and defeated the Romans yet took such heavy losses he exclaimed: “Another together victory and we room lost!” From then such together win ended up being known together a “Pyrrhic victory."
web page on ancient Rome: net Ancient history Sourcebook: Rome sourcebooks.fordham.edu ; internet Ancient history Sourcebook: Late antiquity sourcebooks.fordham.edu ; Forum Romanum forumromanum.org ; “Outlines of roman inn History” forumromanum.org; “The personal Life the the Romans” forumromanum.org|; BBC ancient Rome bbc.co.uk/history; Perseus job - Tufts University; perseus.tufts.edu ; Lacus Curtius penelope.uchicago.edu;Gutenberg.org gutenberg.orgThe Roman realm in the first Century pbs.org/empires/romans;The Internet classics Archive classics.mit.edu ;Bryn Mawr timeless Review bmcr.brynmawr.edu;De Imperatoribus Romanis: An online Encyclopedia of Roman majesties roman-emperors.org;British Museum ancientgreece.co.uk; Oxford classic Art research Center: The Beazley save on computer beazley.ox.ac.uk ;Metropolitan Museum of art metmuseum.org/about-the-met/curatorial-departments/greek-and-roman-art;The Internet standards Archive kchanson.com ;Cambridge classics External Gateway to humanities Resources web.archive.org/web; web Encyclopedia of approach iep.utm.edu; Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy plato.stanford.edu;Ancient Rome sources for students from the Courtenay middle School Library web.archive.org ;History of old Rome OpenCourseWare indigenous the university of Notre Dame /web.archive.org ;United nations of Roma Victrix (UNRV) history unrv.com
notes on the Roman occupation of Italy
development of Latin Colonies. 1) constant thread below is the planting the Roman and especially Latin colonies. 2) Rome is prefer a virus -- doesn"t death the host, however replicates itself. Each nest a tiny Rome. 3) Each nest has a strategy purpose, a uniform layout (points in common to Roman army camp).
location of the opponents of Rome 1. Early enemies: Etruscans (north), Sabines (northeast), Aequi (east), Volsci (south). 2. Latium and Etruria. Cisalpine Gaul. Campania and also Samnium. Umbria and also Picenum. Lucania and also Apulia. Sources: Livy 1-10 covers as much as 292. Livy 11-20 (covering 291-220) is lost. Plutarch and Appian. Dominion over the Latins in regal Rome? No. 1. Rome to be just an additional colony of Alba, favor the various other 29 Latin cities. 2. However the annalists repetitively make Rome stand alone against the combined might of the Latins. 3. This is mainly retrojection native the 4th century (when it yes, really happened). 4. Livy 1.50.3: Tarquinus Superbus ruled over omne nomen Latinum i.e. Every one of Latium. 5. If we expropriate the implicit of the first Carthaginian treaty, Rome had actually a protectorate in Latium c. 500 B.C. "The Carthaginians shall not injure the civilization of Ardea, Antium, Lavinium, Circeii, Terracina, or any kind of other Latins who space allies of Rome." Polyb. 3. 22.
Italic tribes southern of Rome
communication upon i m sorry Rome could case leadership 1. Started by Servius Tullius? Livy: ea erat confessio caput rerum Romam esse (1.45.3, cit. Alföldi 85). A. The Latins were an alleged to have paid for the building of the temple. B. Plan and appearance are known from depictions. C. But no architectural traces survive. More than likely originally simply a grove, an initial temple in 5th B.C. 2. Most, even the hyper-skeptic Beloch, accept the date; Alföldi walk not. 1. He dates it in the duration 490-456 B.C. 2. The believes that was founded as a deliberate competitor to the cult that Diana in ~ Aricia. 3. No doubt that the cult is political. Transport from Aricia to the Aventine is an effort to make Rome the facility of the alliance.
4. Rome was not powerful enough to case the cult center until ~ Lake Regillus, Alföldi says. 5. The Aventine is outside the pomerium. Is this why or because the cult to be there? Alföldi claims it is why. 1. Aventine more than likely becomes component of the city as soon as the Servian walls enclose it? 2. Alfoldi states the Aventine tho remained external the pomerium. 6. Against Alföldi is the archaic dedication law, maintained in DH (4. 26). 1. The mentions Servius Tullius by name. 7. Because that Alföldi, other downdatings go in addition to Diana: 1. Ceres cult goes native 496 come after 428. 2. Gabii capture and also the shield treaty go from Tarquinius Superbus come after 460. 3. Very first Carthaginian contract goes from prior to 450 to 348 B.C. A. This ignores corroborative force of the Pyrgi tablets. 8. Ogilvie: the early nests cannot have actually been swarms in the true (later) sense. 1. I.e. Pometia, Signia, Ecetra, Velitrae, etc. 2. Calls them "building blocks of the Latin League." 9. Main point of this episode comes to Rome"s an approach for the alliance/protectorate. 1. Has actually a cult at its center. Syncretism stays a tool for amalgamation that Italy. 2. But fifth century Rome and also later has improved methods for diplomacy (esp. Treaties).
Expansion the the Romans in Italy
The foedus Cassianum. 493 B.C. (DH 6. 95; Livy 2.33; Sourcebook 20) 1. Genuine, voluntary activity by the formerly rebellious Latins in solution to new external threats. 2. Other neighborhood "empires" centered roughly Tibur (Livy 7.19) and Praeneste (6.29); both sign up with Hernici in 361. 3. Regeneration of the Foedus Cassianum in 358 follows prolonged discontent of the Latins. A. The brand-new treaty an ext firmly dictates subordination that the allies. 4. Foedus Cassianum continues to be the legal basis for the definition of Latin legal rights (ius Latinum). A. But there is a growing tendency towards separate treaties v individual cities. 5. The Hernici room the an initial non-Latins to obtain the Latin rights. 6. Rome has no partnerships outside Latium till after 338; Capua might be the an initial case. All at an early stage Roman treaties either foedus aequum or foedus iniquum? a. Foedus iniquum supposedly = aid Rome in any type of war she says, also wars that aggression. 1. Badian points the end that the hatchet foedus iniquum is no attested together a technology term. B. B claims in significance that the foedus aequum to be the common form. 1. Even though in fact the various other party to be agreeing come be topic to part degree. C. Example: the treaty through the Aequi in 467 (DH = Sourcebook, 21). 1. Language that subjection is unlikely to it is in historical. 2. Duty to carry out troops is the core. Focus on Veii as instance of Roman exercise in this period? If design template is roman inn leniency, Veii is a bad example - it to be utterly ruined in 396. Defeated Veii becomes part of Rome (ager Veiens); 4 brand-new tribes reflected boosted citizen numbers.
roman Military system
The occupation of Italy was due, in great measure, to the performance of the roman inn army. The strength of the roman government, too, depended upon the army, which to be the real support the the polite power. By their occupations the Romans ended up being a country of warriors.
roman Army: Every citizen between the periods of seventeen and forty-five to be obliged to serve in the army, when the public company required it. In early times the battles lasted just for a short period, and also consisted in ravaging the fields of the enemy; and the soldier’s reward was the loot which he had the ability to capture. However after the siege of Veii, the ax of service came to be longer, and it ended up being necessary to provide to the soldiers continual pay. This pay, v the possibility of plunder and of a share in the allotment of conquered land; furnished a solid motive to render faithful service.
Superiority of the warrior class
divisions of the Army: In case of war it was customary to raise four legions, 2 for each consul. Every legion was written of thirty maniples, or companies, of heavy-armed troops,—twenty maniples consisting of one hundred and also twenty men each, and also ten maniples that sixty men each,—making in all 3 thousand heavy-armed troops. Over there were likewise twelve hundred light-armed troops, not organized in maniples. The whole variety of men in a legion was therefore forty-two hundred. To every legion was typically joined a human body of cavalry, numbering three hundred men. After the palliation of Latium and also Italy, the allied cities were additionally obliged come furnish a certain number of men, according to the regards to the treaty. \~\
bespeak of Battle: In old times the Romans dealt with in the path of the Greek phalanx, in a hard square. This arrangement was well suited to withstand an attack on a level plain, but it was not adapted to aggressive warfare. About the time of Camillus, the Romans introduced the more open order of “maniples.” When drawn up in order of battle, the legion to be arranged in three lines: first, the hastati, consisted of of young men; second, the principes, written of the more experienced soldiers; and also third, the triarii, which consisted of the veterans, capable of sustaining the other two lines. Every line was composed of ten maniples, those that the very first two present consisting the one hundred and twenty guys each, and those that the third line consist of of sixty guys each; the maniples, or companies, in each line to be so arranged the they were opposite the spaces in the next line.
This arrangement enabled the suppliers in front come retreat right into the spaces in the rear, or the companies in the rear to advance to the spaces in front. Behind the third line usually fought the light-armed and also less proficient soldiers (rorarii and also accensi). Each maniple carried its own ensign; and the legion carried a typical surmounted through a silver eagle. \~\
Armor and Weapons: The protective armor of every the 3 lines to be alike—a cloak of mail for the breast, a brass helmet for the head, greaves because that the legs, and a big oblong shield lugged upon the left arm. For attack weapons, every man brought a quick sword, which could be provided for cutting or thrusting. The soldiers in the very first two lines every had additionally two javelins, to be hurled in ~ the enemy before coming right into close quarters; and those of the third line each had a lengthy lance, which might be provided for piercing. The was with such arms as these the the roman inn soldiers overcame Italy. \~\
army Rewards and Honors: The Romans encouraged the soldiers v rewards for your bravery. These were bestowed by the general in the existence of the entirety army. The highest possible individual reward to be the “civic crown,” make of oak leaves, offered to that who had saved the life that a fellow-citizen top top the battlefield. Other suitable rewards, such as golden crowns, banner of various colors, and ornaments, were bestowed for singular bravery. Once a general slew the general of the enemy, the captured spoils (spolia opima) to be hung increase in the holy place of Jupiter Feretrius. The highest possible military respect which the roman state could bestow to be a triumph,—a solemn procession, decreed by the senate, in i beg your pardon the victorious general, with his army, marched through the city to the Capitol, bearing in his train the trophies the war. \~\
military Roads: an essential part of the military system of Rome to be the network of armed forces roads through which her armies and also munitions of war could be sent right into every component of Italy. The first military roadway was the Appian method (via Appia), constructed by Appius Claudius during the Samnite wars. It connected Rome v Capua, and was afterward expanded to Beneventum and also Venusia, and finally as much as Brundisium. This furnished a model for the roads which were subsequently laid the end to various other points in Italy. The Latin way (via Latina) ran south right into the Samnite country and also connected through the Appian method near Capua and at Beneventum. The Flaminian way (via Flaminia) ran north v eastern Etruria and Umbria to Ariminum. Native this last-mentioned place, the Aemilian means (via Aemilia) extended into Cisalpine Gaul as much as Placentia on the river Po. One more important road, the Cassian method (via Cassia) ran through main Etruria come Arretium, and also connected v the Aemilian method in Cisalpine Gaul. Along the western shore of Etruria ran the Aurelian means (via Aurelia). These to be the chief army roads constructed during the moment of the republic. So long lasting were these highways that their continues to be exist to the existing day.
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beforehand Roman Wars v the Volscians, Aequians, and Etruscans
The Foreign enemies of Rome: when these struggles were walking on to relax the distress of the negative plebeians, the frontiers to be continually intimidated by international enemies. The chief enemies of Rome right now were the Volscians, the Aequians, and the Etruscans. The Volscians occupied the southern plains of Latium, close to the seacoast. The Aequians organized the slopes the the Apennines top top the northeast. The Etruscans held all their initial territory top top the right financial institution of the Tiber, other than the hill Janiculum. ~ above every next Rome was beset through foes; and for numerous years her militaries fought in defense of your homes, and practically within sight of the city. Through the treaties which Sp. Cassius had formed, the Romans, the Latins, and also the Hernicans make common reason in warding off these attacks. There is no continuous history that these regular wars, however the roman inn historians have preserved the storage of them in certain legends, which were spiritual to the Romans themselves, and which we should not forget if we would recognize the character and spirit the the roman people. \~\
Coriolanus and the Volscians: The Volscian wars have actually left us the story that Coriolanus, i beg your pardon tells us that this young patrician opposed the circulation of grain among the plebeians; the he was threatened by the typical people and also fled come the Volscians, and also led one army versus his indigenous city; that his mother and his wife went to the Volscian camp and pleaded through him to cease his wars upon Rome; that Rome was for this reason saved, and also a temple was developed to commemorate the patriotism that the roman women. \~\
Cincinnatus and also the Aequians: The storage of the Aequian wars is maintained in the story the the roman patriot Cincinnatus, who was dubbed from his nation home come rescue the roman army, i m sorry was surrounded by the Aequians, and also threatened with devastation in a small defile in Mt. Algidus, near the Alban hills; and also who with good speed and also skill beat the Aequian army, compelling it come “pass under the yoke” as a sign of submission, and then changed the following evening come Rome in triumph. The “yoke” included a spear sustained in a horizontal position by 2 spears addressed upright in the ground. \~\
The Fabii and also the Etruscans: v the Etruscan wars is attached the story the the Fabian gens, which was among the best patrician dwellings of Rome; and also which, having volunteered to bring on the war versus the Etruscans at its own expense, was, with the exemption of one person, utterly damaged by the enemy. The Fabian gens was because of this honored for having sacrificed itself in the defense that Rome. These stories must be read, not as precise narration of facts, but due to the fact that they display the type of virtues that the early Romans many admired.
start of the Roman occupation
To understand the course of the roman inn conquests, we should first keep in psychic the degree of her region at the beginning of this period. Much of the land around the Tiber, i beg your pardon she had actually lost with the expulsion that the kings, she had slowly recovered. For this reason that now her territory had lands not only in Latium, but likewise in Etruria toward the north, and also in the Volscian nation toward the south. The Roman territory at the beginning of this duration was no large, however it was compact and well organized into twenty-seven local tribes-twenty-three in the country and four in the city. The many formidable and dangerous neighbors of Rome currently were the Etruscans top top the north and the Samnites ~ above the south.
The revolutionary which had actually been lugged on because the loss of the decemvirs provided fresh hope to the plebeians, and also inspired the entirety Roman world with new life and also vigor. The armies in the field likewise began to be successful, and also Rome recovered lot of her lost ground in Latium. The triple league developed by Spurius Cassius in between the Romans, Latins, and Hernicans, had actually resulted in checking the Volscians and Aequians. The Romans now felt encouraged to attack the Etruscans in the hope of recovering the region which they had actually lost years before, once the Tarquins to be expelled. Fidenae, the Etruscan city a few miles north of Rome, was captured, and also the means was opened up to assault Veii, the strongest city that Etruria.
Siege and Capture of Veii (405-396 B.C.): The human being of Veii were no disposed to meet the Romans in the open up field, but retreated within their walls. It thus became vital to put siege come the city. The an excellent Etruscan walls were too strong to be taken through assault; and also the Roman armies stationed themselves approximately the city for the function of starving the civilization into submission. The roman inn soldiers to be not allowed to return home and also cultivate their farms, as they were wont come do; and so, because that the an initial time, they to be given continual pay for their services. For ten year the siege continued, when it was carried to a nearby by Camillus, who was appointed dictator. Veii to be deprived of its inhabitants, and its wall surfaces inclosed a vacant city. The capture of Veii was the biggest victory i m sorry the Romans had actually yet achieved, and also Camillus was given a splendid triumph, once he returned to Rome. The soil of southern Etruria also fell into the hands of the Romans; and also four brand-new rural people were added to the roman inn domain. \~\