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Born:83 BCEancient Rome...(Show more)Died:August 30 BCEAlexandriaEgypt...(Show more)Notable family Members:spouse Cleopatraspouse Fulviaspouse Octaviason Ptolemy Philadelphus...(Show more)Role In:Battle the PharsalusBattle that Philippi...(Show more)

Mark Antony to be a Roman general underJulius Caesarand later triumvir who ruled Rome’s eastern districts (43–30BCE). He was the lover ofCleopatra, queen that Egypt, and also was defeated by Octavian (the future emperorAugustus) in the last of the civil battles that destroyed theRoman Republic.


Mark Antonywas the son and grandson of guys of the exact same name. His father was dubbed Creticus since of his military operations in Crete. His grandfather, one of the top orators the his day, was a consul and also censor that was vividly depicted as a speak inCicero’sDe oratore(55).


Mark Antony offered with distinction as a mounties commander inJudaeaandEgypt. He then joined the employee ofJulius Caesar. Once the polite War damaged out betweenPompeyand Caesar, Antony was tribune the theplebsand sustained Caesar. ~ Caesar’s assassination, he became a triumvir and also gained manage of Rome’s eastern provinces.


Mark Antony and Cleopatra to be partners for 11 years and had three youngsters together. Personal from their undoubted common affection, your alliance was politically useful. Cleopatra essential Antony to revive the old borders of she kingdom, and Antony neededEgyptas a source of supplies and funds.


Mark Antony to be at war v Octavian for regulate of the roman world, i beg your pardon he shed at the fight of Actium (September 2, 31BC). As soon as Octavian’s fleet gained the top hand, Cleopatra returned to Alexandria. Antony joined her there. Once Octavian arrived in Alexandria (summer 30), an initial Antony and then Cleopatra committedsuicide.


Mark Antony, Latin Marcus Antonius, (born 83—died August, 30 bce, Alexandria, Egypt), Roman basic under Julius Caesar and later triumvir (43–30 bce), who, v Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, was defeated by Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) in the critical of the civil battles that ruined the roman Republic.

Early life and also career

Mark Antony to be the son and also grandson of men of the very same name. His father was called Creticus due to the fact that of his armed forces operations in Crete; his grandfather, among the leading orators that his day, to be a consul and also censor who was vividly illustrated as a speaker in Cicero’s De oratore (55). After ~ a somewhat dissipated youth, the future triumvir offered with distinction in 57–55 together a cavalry commander under Aulus Gabinius in Judaea and also Egypt. He then joined the employee of Julius Caesar, to who he was connected on his mother’s side, and served v him for lot of the concluding step of Caesar’s occupation of main and northern Gaul and its consequences (54–53 and also 52–50). In 52 Antony held the office that quaestor, an office that financial administration that provided him a lifetime place in the Senate. In 50 the was chosen to the politically prominent priesthood of the augurs, defeating Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus.

Civil war and triumvirate

In 49, the year the civil War damaged out in between Pompey and Caesar, Antony was tribune that the plebs and vigorously sustained Caesar. He fled native Rome to Caesar’s headquarters after receiving dangers of violence. Antony battled in the short Italian project that required Pompey to evacuate the Italian peninsula. ~ this Caesar left that in charge of Italy during the Spanish campaign. He climate joined Caesar in Greece, commanded his left soup in the fight of Pharsalus, and also was sent back as understand of the equine (a dictator’s second-in-command) in 48 to keep order in Italy. He failed to carry out this and was probably removed indigenous his short article in 47; he to be without employment until 44, as soon as he became consul together colleague and also later priest (flamen) of Caesar. Together consul and lupercus, among the celebrants the the festival that the Lupercalia (a fertility festival beforehand in the year), he offered Caesar a diadem—a ribbon signifying royalty—which Caesar, pressured by the citizens’ open up distaste because that monarchy, refused to accept.

After Caesar’s murder, Antony gained possession of the treasury and of Caesar’s papers, i beg your pardon he used (and probably supplemented) to his own advantage. For a time he sought a moderate policy, however when challenged by the 19-year-old Octavian (later the emperor Augustus), Caesar’s adopted son and also heir, that turned against Caesar’s assassins. In June 44 the Senate granted him phibìc and central Gaul and northern Italy together his district for five years. Cicero, however, fiercely struck him in the Philippic orations between September 44 and April 43, and Octavian joined forces with the consuls in 43. Their combined forces twice beat Antony, that was besieging Brutus Albinus at Mutina (present-day Modena). Antony regulated to withdraw into southern Gaul. The opposing militaries broke up after the deaths of both consuls, and Antony to be joined through Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Lucius Munatius Plancus with their armies. In beforehand November, Octavian—at this point leading the consular armies—met Antony and Lepidus in Bononia (present-day Bologna). The three entered into a five-year pact, soon validated by a law, conferring on castle a share autocracy, the triumvirate. More than 200 guys were proscribed and (when captured) killed (Cicero was one of them), either since they were enemies of the triumvirs or in order to confiscate your wealth. In 42 Gaius Cassius and Marcus Brutus, beat in two battles at Philippi (Macedonia) in which Antony identified himself as commander, killed themselves and, v these acts, the republican cause.

The triumvirs had actually agreed to divide the empire, so Antony conduct to take up the management of the east provinces. He an initial summoned Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt, to Tarsus (southeastern Asia Minor) come answer reports that she had actually assisted your enemies. She efficiently exonerated herself, and Antony invested the winter that 41–40 as her lover in ~ Alexandria, Egypt. Regardless of the romantic accounts of old authors, however, the made no relocate to check out her again for more than 3 years, return he substantially increased she territorial possessions during that interval.

Early in 40 Antony’s brother, the consul Lucius Antonius, sustained by Antony’s wife, Fulvia, rebelled against Octavian in Italy. Octavian defeated the rebellion, capturing and also destroying Perusia (present-day Perugia). Antony had actually to go back to Italy, leave his general Ventidius to resolve a Parthian intrusion of Asia Minor and also Syria. After initial skirmishes, Antony and also Octavian were reconciled at Brundisium (present-day Brindisi) and, due to the fact that Fulvia had passed away in the meantime, Antony married Octavian’s sister, Octavia. The 2 men split the empire between them, Octavian taking everything west of Scodra (present-day Shkodër, Alb.) and Antony whatever east. Lepidus, that had previously been confined come Africa, was allowed to store it. In 39 Antony and also Octavian break up a treaty v Sextus Pompeius (see Pompeius Magnus Pius, Sextus), who managed the seas and also had to be blockading Italy.

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Antony and Octavia saw Athens, whereby they to be deified; Antony was declared the new Dionysus, mystic god of wine, happiness, and also immortality. Antony then arranged the East. Ventidius, meanwhile, thrust the Parthians out of Asia minor in 40 and also drove them ago beyond the Euphrates flow (39–38). Herod—the child of a influential Palestinian Jewish friend of Rome, Antipater—was collection up in Jerusalem together king that Judaea in 37. Once Octavian had problems in Italy and also the West in 37, Antony met him in ~ Tarentum, gave him with ships, and agreed come renew the triumvirate for another five years. Lepidus was maybe not included. In 36 Octavian’s basic Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa defeated Sextus Pompeius. Climate Lepidus and also Octavian linked Africa. Octavia, having remained in Rome since 37, was sent out to Antony by Octavian in 35. Antony sent out her back because she come with practically none of the troops Antony had lent Octavian. A long-prepared strike on Parthia in 36 failed, with hefty losses—it was Antony’s first military failure. At this suggest he rotate again to Cleopatra, who had actually borne him 2 children and given him complete political and also financial support.