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Character of the city

Alexandria has long inhabited a special ar in the popular creativity by virtue that its association with Alexander and also Cleopatra. Alexandria played critical role in preserving and transmitting Hellenic culture to the broader Mediterranean world and was a crucible of scholarship, piety, and also ecclesiastical politics in beforehand Christian history. Back it has been asserted that Alexandria decreased as a result of its conquest by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century ce, such a declare is misleading. When the city’s politics primacy was lost when the resources was relocated to the interior, Alexandria remained crucial centre of navy operations, maritime commerce, and also craft production. Together late as the 15th century, the city prospered as a transit allude in the trade conducted in between the Red Sea and also the Mediterranean basin.


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Alexandria, Egypt
Downtown Alexandria, Egypt.
Dennis Jarvis (CC-BY-2.0) (A ugandan-news.com posting Partner)

Beginning in the 16th century, however, the city endured a duration of protracted decrease owing to epidemic disease and bureaucratic neglect; by the finish of the 18th century, traces the Alexandria’s previous splendour had actually largely vanished. By the moment French troops got into Egypt in 1798, Alexandria had been reduced to a city of some 10,000 inhabitants, far-reaching mainly for its duty in Ottoman naval networks. Thriving in the 19th century together a major centre of the booming cotton industry, the modern-day city had concerned bear small in usual with the old metropolis.

Alexandria has normally been defined by a cultural ambivalence inherent in the city’s location—extending follow me a spit that land through its ago to Egypt and its face to the Mediterranean. Throughout many of the history, Alexandria has actually thus remained a cosmopolitan town, belonging as much—or maybe more—to the wider Mediterranean world regarding its hinterland. The resurgence of the city in the 19th century, however, brought about a profound readjust in the city’s identity. Through the significant increase in farming exports, the flow of native Egyptians to the city, and also the formation and integration the the Egyptian state, Alexandria ended up being tied come the Nile valley more closely than ever before before. As a result, it likewise became the locus of an emergent Egyptian national consciousness.


Beginning in the mid-18th century, this underlying changes would it is in overshadowed for approximately a century by the rise to power of a Levantine service community. Foreign prominence was reinforced by the overlay of british colonialism start in 1882 and also by the development of a foreign-dominated municipality in 1890. The arts flourished during this century-long interlude, and the city quiet boasts well Neoclassical and also Art Nouveau design dating native this period. The literary side of the city’s flowering is reflect in the functions of the Alexandria-born Greek writer Constantine Cavafy, who attracted on Alexandria’s fabled previous in his poetry. Likewise, the decadent cosmopolitanism of the foreign neighborhood in Alexandria was portrayed by the English writer Lawrence Durrell in his famous collection of novels, The Alexandria Quartet (1957–60). A difference portrayal of the modern city is provided in Naguib Mahfouz’s Miramar (1967); collection in postcolonial Alexandria, Mahfouz’s novella offers a check out of the city as an integral component of Egyptian background and society. This process of integration was increased after the 1952 revolution, when most of the remaining international residents departed.

At the start of the 21st century, Alexandria stayed Egypt’s “second capital.” It continued to contribute substantially come the nationwide economy and also was well-known as a summer vacation destination.

Landscape

City site

The contemporary city expand 25 miles (40 km) east to west along a limestone ridge, 1–2 mile (1.6–3.2 km) wide, the separates the salt lake of Maryūṭ, or Mareotis—now partly drained and cultivated—from the Egyptian mainland. An hourglass-shaped promontory developed by the silting up of a mole (the Heptastadion), i beg your pardon was developed soon after ~ Alexandria’s founding, web links the island the Pharos with the city center on the mainland. Its two steeply curving bays type the basins for the east Harbour and also the west Harbour.

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Climate

The prevailing phibìc wind, blowing across the Mediterranean, provides Alexandria a markedly different climate from that of the desert hinterland. The summers are fairly temperate, return humidity can construct up in July and in August, the sexty month, as soon as the mean temperature will 87 °F (31 °C). Winters space cool and invariably significant by a series of violent storms that can bring torrential rain and even hail. The mean day-to-day temperature in January, i m sorry is the coldest month, is 64 °F (18 °C).