The Templars and also other Monastic military Orders

Seven century after their dissolution, the Knights Templar quiet fascinate. The Templars were amongst the many wealthy and powerful of the western Christian army orders. In their distinctive white mantles with a red cross, Templar knights were among the cracked fighting systems of the Crusades.

The organization existed for almost two centuries throughout the middle Ages, approximately the very same two hundred years that the crusaders hosted land in the middle East.

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Monastic armed forces Orders Names because that the Templars foundation of the Knights Templar organization of the Knights Templar

Templar Heraldry

Templars at war Templars as the an initial Bankers Templar places The trial of the Templars and the Inquisition in France

The Templars in popular Culture

The Knights Hospitaller

The Teutonic Knights

Knight Templar and also Knight Hospitaller stained glass home window Saint Andrew"s Church, temple Grafton, Stratford district, Warwickshire, England.




Names for the Templars

The Templars complete formal name is: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici (The negative Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the temple of Solomon. Castle are additionally known as

Knights that the the bespeak of Solomon"s Temple negative Knights that Christ Knights Templar (or following the French "Knights Templars") Templars

Foundation that the Knights Templar

After the very first Crusade recaptured Jerusalem in 1099, countless Christians do pilgrimages to miscellaneous supposedly holy places in the divine Land. Although the city that Jerusalem was under fairly secure control, the remainder of the holy Land "Outremer" was not. Marauding bandits preyed on pilgrims as they attempted to make the trip from the coast to the "holy places".

In 1119, the French items Hugues de Payens approached King Baldwin II the Jerusalem and Warmund, Patriarch the Jerusalem, and also proposed producing a monastic order for the security of this pilgrims. Baldwin and also Warmund agreed come Hughe"s request, more than likely in January 1120 in ~ the council of Nablus. Baldwin granted the Templars a headquarters in a wing of the royal royal residence on the temple Mount in the captured Al-Aqsa Mosque. The temple Mount stood above what was thought to be the damages of the holy place of Solomon. The Crusaders because of this referred to the Al Aqsa Mosque together Solomon"s Temple, and from this place the new Order take it the name of poor Knights of Christ and also the temple of Solomon, or "Templar" knights.

The Order, initially with ripe knights, had few financial resources and relied ~ above donations to survive. Their emblem was of two knights riding ~ above a solitary horse, emphasizing the Order"s poverty.

Officially acknowledge by the roman inn Catholic Church around 1129, the Order to be a favoured throughout west Christendom and also grew swiftly in membership and also power. The Templars had actually a an effective friend in Saint bernard of Clairvaux, a leading Church figure, the French abbot primarily responsible for the popular of the Cistercian bespeak of monks and also a nephew of one of the nine starting Templar knights.

Bernard composed persuasively ~ above the Templars instead of in the letter "In prayer of the new Knighthood", and also in 1129, at the the supervisory board of Troyes, that led a group of leading churchmen formally to give the bespeak on behalf of the Church. Through this formal approval, the Templars were favoured transparent Christendom, receiving money, land, farms, castles and also the knighted sons of noble families who were passionate to assist with the struggle in the divine Land.

Saint Bernard noted the ethical justification because that monks killing people. Castle were, according to Saint Bernard, killing not a man yet killing an evil. Death in God"s name was not homicide but malicide.

In 1139, Pope innocent II"s papal bull Omne datum optimum exempted the Order from obedience to neighborhood laws. This judgment meant inter alia the the Templars could pass openly through every borders, were not compelled to pay any type of taxes, and were exempt from all authority - both temporal and also spiritual - other than that that the pope.

Baldwin II ceding the temple of Solomon come Hugues de Payens and Gaudefroy de Saint-Homer


Stained Glass Windows, temple Balsall


Organization that the Knights Templar

Military Monks

Bernard de Clairvaux and also founder Hugues de Payens devised the details code that behaviour for the Templar Order, known to modern historians together the Latin Rule. That is 72 clauses characterized the right behaviour for the Knights, such together the varieties of apparel they were to wear and also how many horses they can have. Knights to be to take your meals in silence, eat meat no an ext than three times per week, and not have physical call of any kind of kind v women, also members the their very own family. Together the order grew, much more guidelines to be added, and the initial list of 72 rule was expanded to several hundred in its final form.

As the Templars to be both knights and monks, so your commanderies were both castles and monasteries. Though defensible and strategically located, they featured all the architectural features of a monastery: church, thing house, cloister, refectory, dormitory, etc.

St. Bernard of Clairvaux, In praise of the new Knighthood thing THREE, ~ above THE brand-new KNIGHTHOOD

The items of Christ, ns say, may strike v confidence and also die yet an ext confidently, because that he serves Christ as soon as he strikes, and serves himself when he falls. Neither does he bear the knife in vain, because that he is God"s minister, for the penalty of evildoers and also for the praise of the good. If he death an evildoer, the is not a mankiller, but, if I might so put it, a killer that evil. That is evidently the avenger that Christ in the direction of evildoers and also he is rightly taken into consideration a defender of Christians. Have to he be killed himself, we understand that he has not perished, yet has come safely into port. Once he inflicts death it is come Christ"s profit, and when that suffers death, it is because that his own gain. The Christian glories in the death of the pagan, due to the fact that Christ is glorified; while the fatality of the Christian provides occasion for the King to present his liberality in the lucrative of his knight....

A modern-day image the a items Templar in activity - the is not obvious that behind the armor is a pious tonsured monk.


Templar Hierarchy

Templar ranks were:

Knights, who were constantly noblemen. Templar Knights were equipped as heavy cavalry, with three or 4 horses and one or 2 squires. Squires were usually not members of the Order but were rather outsiders that were hired for a set period of time. Sergeants. Attracted from non-noble households were Templar sergeants. They brought an essential skills and also trades such as blacksmithing and also building, and administered numerous of the Order"s european properties. In the Crusader States, they dealt with alongside the knights together light cavalry with a single horse. Sergeants wore black or brown. Chaplains, that were ordained clergymans responsible because that the Templars" spiritual needs.

Templars did not carry out knighting ceremonies, so any kind of knight wishing to become a knight Templar had actually to be a article already. Knights were the most visible branch the the order, and wore the famed white mantles to represent their purity and also chastity.

few of the Order"s most an elderly positions were reserved for sergeants, including the article of commander of the Vault that Acre, that was the de facto Admiral the the Templar fleet.

All 3 classes were "brothers" and wore the Order"s red cross.

The Templars were arranged as a monastic order based on the Cistercian Order, i m sorry was considered the first effective international organization in Europe. The business structure had actually a strong chain that authority. Each linguistic area ("tongue") v a significant Templar presence had a Provincial understand of the Order because that the Templars belong to that tongue.

Each Templar belonged come a monastery-castle known as a Preceptory or Commandery v its own master, responsible to his Provincial grasp or grand Prior, and also ultimately to the grand Master. The power structure was slightly different in the holy Land (since it to be principally connected in fighting, when in Europe the main task was jae won management and also recruiting. Like any kind of other good noble the cool Master had a number of officers such as a Senechal and Marshal, and unlike other an excellent nobles additionally had a an elderly officer called a "Draper" since the standardisation of Templar outfits - successfully uniforms - were of such importance.

Grand Master The Grand master was the can be fried authority of the Templar Order and also answered only to the pope. When elected, the Grand master served for life. Number of Grand master were killed in battle, reflecting that the position was far an ext than an bureaucratic one.
Seneschal The Seneschal was the best hand-man come the cool Master. He also acted together a consigliare or torture to the cool Master and looked after many administrative duties.
Marshal The Marshal that the Order to be the Templar in fee of war and anything that was related to it. In this feeling the Marshal could be viewed as the 2nd most necessary member that the Order after the grand Master. His retinue consisted of two squires, one turcoman, one turcopole and also one sergeant. That had four horses in ~ his command. One Under Marshal remained in charge the the footmen and equipment.
Standard Bearer The conventional Bearer remained in charge the the squires. Despite the title of his office, he never ever seemed come have carried the Order’s typical himself.
Draper The Draper was in charge of the Templar garments and linens. The Templar dominance states the after the Master and also Marshal, the Draper was exceptional to every brethren.The Templar dominion said of the Draper’s responsibilities about the robe of the order, “and the Draper or the one that is in his ar should studiously reflect and also take care to have the reward of God in all the above-mentioned things, so that the eye of the envious and evil-tongued can not observe that the robes room too lengthy or too short; however he have to distribute lock so that they to the right those who have to wear them, follow to the size of every one". The Draper had in his an individual retinue 2 squires, a variety of tailors and one brother in charge of the pack animals who would bring supplies. The Draper, favor the Marshal, had 4 horses at his disposal.
commanders of the Lands: Jerusalem, Antioch and Tripoli this Templar policemans operated lot like a Baillie and operated under the grand Masters. Leaders were responsible for every Templar houses, castles and farms in your jurisdiction. The personal retinue the the commanders consisted of two squires, 2 foot soldiers, one sergeant, one deacon and also one Saracen scribe. Like others, the commander had four horses at his command and one palfrey. Provincial masters or cool Priors Provincial master governed the europe districts. Castle were comparable to the commanders of Lands, however were largely been responsible for managing revenue and also recruiting brand-new men to the Order.
leaders of knights, houses and also farms (Casals) this Templars dropped under the commanders of Lands and were responsible for the day-to-day work of mansions under their care. They were typically knights, however if no knight stayed in the region, the position can go to a sergeant. If the Commander was a article he was permitted 4 horses, yet if a sergeant just two. Commanders (of Commandaries / Preceptories) these Templars dropped under the Provincial Masters and were responsible for the day-to-day work of chateaus under your care. The Commander to be invariably a knight and also permitted four horses.

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Knights Knights had actually to be guys of noble birth and also wore the white mantle the is the most acquainted garment that the Order. Each knight was allowed one squire and three horses.
Chaplains Templar Priests
Sergeants Sergeants walk not need to be that noble birth and to present their lower rank, sergeants wore a black or brown mantle. Lock were offered one horse and had no squires under their command

Provincial Masters, cool Priors

The Templar order was separated into regions or "tongues" based on the language the the region. They occurred over time however the adhering to list gives a great idea of the Tongues:

Provence (ie Occitania, the region of the Languedoc speaking Occitan) Auvergne (speaking a dialect of Occitan) Poitou (including Aquitaine, speaking a dialect of Occitan) France Burgundy Portugal Castile Aragon Valencia Sicily & Apulia Rome Tuscany Lombardy England Germany Hungary Poland Czech lands Jerusalem Tripoli Antioch Cyprus Lesser Armenia