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| The Templars and also other Monastic military Orders |
Seven century after their dissolution, the Knights Templar quiet fascinate. The Templars were amongst the many wealthy and powerful of the western Christian army orders. In their distinctive white mantles with a red cross, Templar knights were among the cracked fighting systems of the Crusades.
The organization existed for almost two centuries throughout the middle Ages, approximately the very same two hundred years that the crusaders hosted land in the middle East.
Names for the Templars
The Templars complete formal name is: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici (The negative Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the temple of Solomon. Castle are additionally known asKnights that the the bespeak of Solomon"s Temple negative Knights that Christ Knights Templar (or following the French "Knights Templars") Templars
Foundation that the Knights Templar
After the very first Crusade recaptured Jerusalem in 1099, countless Christians do pilgrimages to miscellaneous supposedly holy places in the divine Land. Although the city that Jerusalem was under fairly secure control, the remainder of the holy Land "Outremer" was not. Marauding bandits preyed on pilgrims as they attempted to make the trip from the coast to the "holy places".
In 1119, the French items Hugues de Payens approached King Baldwin II the Jerusalem and Warmund, Patriarch the Jerusalem, and also proposed producing a monastic order for the security of this pilgrims. Baldwin and also Warmund agreed come Hughe"s request, more than likely in January 1120 in ~ the council of Nablus. Baldwin granted the Templars a headquarters in a wing of the royal royal residence on the temple Mount in the captured Al-Aqsa Mosque. The temple Mount stood above what was thought to be the damages of the holy place of Solomon. The Crusaders because of this referred to the Al Aqsa Mosque together Solomon"s Temple, and from this place the new Order take it the name of poor Knights of Christ and also the temple of Solomon, or "Templar" knights.
The Order, initially with ripe knights, had few financial resources and relied ~ above donations to survive. Their emblem was of two knights riding ~ above a solitary horse, emphasizing the Order"s poverty.
Officially acknowledge by the roman inn Catholic Church around 1129, the Order to be a favoured throughout west Christendom and also grew swiftly in membership and also power. The Templars had actually a an effective friend in Saint bernard of Clairvaux, a leading Church figure, the French abbot primarily responsible for the popular of the Cistercian bespeak of monks and also a nephew of one of the nine starting Templar knights.
Bernard composed persuasively ~ above the Templars instead of in the letter "In prayer of the new Knighthood", and also in 1129, at the the supervisory board of Troyes, that led a group of leading churchmen formally to give the bespeak on behalf of the Church. Through this formal approval, the Templars were favoured transparent Christendom, receiving money, land, farms, castles and also the knighted sons of noble families who were passionate to assist with the struggle in the divine Land.
Saint Bernard noted the ethical justification because that monks killing people. Castle were, according to Saint Bernard, killing not a man yet killing an evil. Death in God"s name was not homicide but malicide.
In 1139, Pope innocent II"s papal bull Omne datum optimum exempted the Order from obedience to neighborhood laws. This judgment meant inter alia the the Templars could pass openly through every borders, were not compelled to pay any type of taxes, and were exempt from all authority - both temporal and also spiritual - other than that that the pope.
Organization that the Knights Templar
Bernard de Clairvaux and also founder Hugues de Payens devised the details code that behaviour for the Templar Order, known to modern historians together the Latin Rule. That is 72 clauses characterized the right behaviour for the Knights, such together the varieties of apparel they were to wear and also how many horses they can have. Knights to be to take your meals in silence, eat meat no an ext than three times per week, and not have physical call of any kind of kind v women, also members the their very own family. Together the order grew, much more guidelines to be added, and the initial list of 72 rule was expanded to several hundred in its final form.
As the Templars to be both knights and monks, so your commanderies were both castles and monasteries. Though defensible and strategically located, they featured all the architectural features of a monastery: church, thing house, cloister, refectory, dormitory, etc.
Templar ranks were:Knights, who were constantly noblemen. Templar Knights were equipped as heavy cavalry, with three or 4 horses and one or 2 squires. Squires were usually not members of the Order but were rather outsiders that were hired for a set period of time. Sergeants. Attracted from non-noble households were Templar sergeants. They brought an essential skills and also trades such as blacksmithing and also building, and administered numerous of the Order"s european properties. In the Crusader States, they dealt with alongside the knights together light cavalry with a single horse. Sergeants wore black or brown. Chaplains, that were ordained clergymans responsible because that the Templars" spiritual needs.
Templars did not carry out knighting ceremonies, so any kind of knight wishing to become a knight Templar had actually to be a article already. Knights were the most visible branch the the order, and wore the famed white mantles to represent their purity and also chastity.
few of the Order"s most an elderly positions were reserved for sergeants, including the article of commander of the Vault that Acre, that was the de facto Admiral the the Templar fleet.
All 3 classes were "brothers" and wore the Order"s red cross.
The Templars were arranged as a monastic order based on the Cistercian Order, i m sorry was considered the first effective international organization in Europe. The business structure had actually a strong chain that authority. Each linguistic area ("tongue") v a significant Templar presence had a Provincial understand of the Order because that the Templars belong to that tongue.
Each Templar belonged come a monastery-castle known as a Preceptory or Commandery v its own master, responsible to his Provincial grasp or grand Prior, and also ultimately to the grand Master. The power structure was slightly different in the holy Land (since it to be principally connected in fighting, when in Europe the main task was jae won management and also recruiting. Like any kind of other good noble the cool Master had a number of officers such as a Senechal and Marshal, and unlike other an excellent nobles additionally had a an elderly officer called a "Draper" since the standardisation of Templar outfits - successfully uniforms - were of such importance.
Provincial Masters, cool Priors
The Templar order was separated into regions or "tongues" based on the language the the region. They occurred over time however the adhering to list gives a great idea of the Tongues:Provence (ie Occitania, the region of the Languedoc speaking Occitan) Auvergne (speaking a dialect of Occitan) Poitou (including Aquitaine, speaking a dialect of Occitan) France Burgundy Portugal Castile Aragon Valencia Sicily & Apulia Rome Tuscany Lombardy England Germany Hungary Poland Czech lands Jerusalem Tripoli Antioch Cyprus Lesser Armenia