Pressure gradient is the circulation rate the a liquid v a pipe. This is directly proportional come the difference between the pressure at the 2 ends that the pipe and also inversely proportional to the pip’s resistance. The press gradient is directly dependent ~ above blood vessel radius which basically controls blood flow. The enlarge the blood ship radius, the much more blood flow or fluid flow. The smaller blood courage radius, the great blood or fluid flow.

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2. Describe the impact that the flow tube radius change had on circulation rate. Just how well go the outcomes compare through your prediction?

Flow tube radius readjust has a straight effect on flow rate. As confirmed in this lab, when circulation tube radius to be increased, the flow rate was additionally increased. Lock are straight proportional. As confirmed from the text, when circulation tube radius rises in a blood vessel, the flow rate is lot more free flowing and flows a lot faster as the radius is increased.

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When beginning with 1.5mm that radius, the flow was an extremely slow, yet when increased to 2mm, 3mm, and also eventually to 5mm, the flow within the blood vessel incrementally increased.

3. Explain the result that radius alters have top top the laminar circulation of a fluid.

Laminar flow is defined as the free-flowing blood in the middle of the vessel. Radius adjust is directly proportional top top laminar flow. In a constricted vessel, proportionately much more blood is in contact with the vessel wall surface and there is less laminar flow, substantially diminishing the price of blood flow in the vessel, however if the vessel is more dilated, or the radius is increased, an ext blood flow is maybe to acquire in, hence increasing the blood flow.

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The enlarge the radius, the much more laminar flow of fluid.

4. Why carry out you think the plot was no linear? (Hint: look at the relationship of the variables in the equation). Just how well did the outcomes compare through your prediction?

If the variables space radius ~ above the X-axis and flow price on the Y-axis, the experiment called for the experimenter to incrementally rise the radius and plot the results. As we know, radius is straight proportional to circulation rate in that as the radius increases so walk the flow rate, therefore, the plotted graph needs to be linear. If one increases, for this reason does the various other going in a right line!

Activity 2 Questions:

1. Define the materials in the blood that impact viscosity?

The contents in the blood that affect viscosity space the presences that plasma proteins and also formed facets such together white blood cell (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), and also platelets. As soon as these formed elements and also plasma proteins in the blood slide previous one another, over there is an increase in the resistance come flow.

2. Define the effect that the viscosity change had on circulation rate. Just how well go the results compare with your prediction?

Viscosity is characterized as the thickness or stickiness the a fluid. In regards to flow rate, they are inversely comparable and thus together you rise viscosity or the “thickness” the the blood, the circulation rate decreases. As watched in the graph, increasing the viscosity inversely reduce the flow rate each time you increased it by 1.

3. Define the graph of flow versus viscosity.

As shown in the graph, the constants in this experiment were radius, length, and also pressure. The variables were flow rate and viscosity. The y axis represented flow rate and also the x axis represented viscosity. As viscosity increased, the flow rate diminished causing a direct or train station curve relationship going down.

4. Discuss the result that polycythemia would have actually on viscosity and on blood flow.

Polycythemia is a problem in i beg your pardon excess red blood cells are present. We learned earlier that rise in red blood cells results in an increase in blood viscosity. Boost in blood viscosity directly affects blood flow, in that blood circulation would decrease. Thus, the visibility of polycythemia would certainly inversely influence blood flow rate by decreasing it.

Activity 3 Questions:

1. I beg your pardon is much more likely come occur, a change in blood vessel radius or a change in blood courage length?

A change in blood ship radius is more like come occur due to the fact that blood vessel size only boosts as we grow into maturity and in adulthood blood vessel lengths stay constant. The only possibility the blood courage length changing is when we obtain or shed weight. Through the procedure of vasodilation, or the smoothing that the blood courage muscle, you can readjust the radius the the vessel more frequently.

2. Define the effect that the change in blood vessel length had actually on circulation rate. How well did the outcomes compare through your prediction?

Blood ship length, when increased causes an ext friction or resistance for this reason making the more an overwhelming for blood to circulation through the vessel. In summation, raising blood vessel length inversely results flow rate yet decreasing circulation rate. Mine prediction to be that rise in blood vessel size would inversely impact blood flow. As confirmed in this experiment, through the increase of the blood courage length, there was a decrease in blood flow.

3. Describe why girlfriend think blood vessel radius deserve to have a larger effect on the human body that changes in blood courage length.

In the blood circulation equation (as watched to the right), blood flow is directly proportional come the fourth power of ship radius. Dramatic transforms happen in regards come blood flow because of little changes in blood courage radius. The smaller sized the blood courage radius, the greater the resistance. Blood courage radius is the single most vital factor in determining blood flow resistance.

4. Describe the effect that obesity would have actually on blood flow and also why.

As referenced from this experiment, weight, either gain or loss effects blood ship length. A readjust in blood vessel length have the right to only be transformed through the get or ns of weight. As confirmed in this experiment, as soon as blood vessel size is boosted as a an outcome of weight gain, over there is greater resistance or friction in ~ the vessel do blood circulation through that vessel more complicated thus decreasing blood flow. Obesity various effect blood flow in that, over there are boosted blood ship lengths, causing better friction or resistance in ~ the vessel and also a diminish in blood flow.

Activity 4 Questions:

1. Explain the result that pressure transforms had on flow rate. How well did the outcomes compare through your prediction.

Pressure alters have a profound result on circulation rate. As pressure increases, circulation rate likewise increases. Lock are straight proportional. In regards to my prediction, ns predicted that as pressure increased, for this reason would flow rate.

2. Exactly how does the plot different from the plots for tube radius, viscosity, and tube length? how well did the outcomes compare v your prediction.

The plot for press in straight in that, rise in push is directly proportional to circulation rate. It was a perfectly straight line upwards as press increased. In regards come the plot for pipe radius, it was very similar in that outcomes were an ext curve shaped however went in the same directly upward. As vessel radius boosted so did flow rate. In regards to viscosity, they were significantly different, as viscosity increased, the rate of flow decreased since there was an ext resistance. In regards to pipe length, this is drastically various than pressure since with rise in pipe length, there is a decrease in rate of flow because there is an ext resistance within the vessel itself. After learning that ship radius is the greatest element in regards to flow rate, i predicted that with an increase in pressure there would also be boost in circulation rate.

3. Define why pressure transforms are not the best way to regulate blood flow.

Pressure alters are no the best way to regulate blood flow because it might place more stress on the heart (which reasons the initial pressure) and also requires the heart to adjust its pressure of contraction. The blood vessels require time to respond to that readjust in force and the huge arteries approximately the heart. It forced for them come have much more tissue in their tunics come accommodate the heart and it’s boost of force. Plus, the best means to control blood flow, as viewed from this experiments is through enhancing vessel radius.

4. Usage you data to calculation the rise in circulation rate in ml/min/mm Hg.

In this experiment, radius, viscosity, and also length stayed constant, and pressure and flow rate were the variables. I began off v a pressure of 25 mm Hg and also the flow rate was 35mm/min. As I rise the push by 25 mm Hg every time, the circulation rate raised by around 35 mm/min every time.

Activity 5 Questions:

1. Define the result of boosting the right flow tube radius on the circulation rate, resistance, and also pump rate.

Increasing the right flow tube radius is straight proportional to increasing flow rate. As shown in various other experiments, raising tube radius reduce resistance thus increasing circulation rate. In addition, as the right flow tube radius increased, therefore did the pump rate. Every time the I raised the right circulation tube radius by .5mm, the pump rate boosted as did the circulation rate because of the to decrease in resistance.

2. Describe what the left and also right beakers in the experiment correspond to in the human heart.

The left beaker to represent the side of the heart whereby blood is pumped v the lungs to the opposite next of the heart. The right beaker to represent the side of the heart that delivers blood come the mechanism of the body.

3. Briefly describe how the person heart could compensate for circulation rate transforms to keep blood pressure. The human being heart compensates for flow rate changes by altering heart rate, stroke volume or resistance. If resistance decreases, love rate can increase to preserve the pressure difference. If resistance is decreasing, over there is boost in flow rate.

Activity 6 Questions:

1. Describe the Frank-Starling law in the heart.

The Frank-Starling law in the heart refers to when much more than the common volume the blood is returned to the heart by the venous system. In this process, the heart is stretched which outcomes in a an ext forceful contraction of the ventricles. This causes more than normal amounts of blood to be ejected through the heart which raises stroke volume.

2. Define what taken place to the pump rate once you raised the stroke volume. Why execute you think this occurred? how well go the outcomes compare through your prediction?

When you increase the stroke volume, over there is an station decrease in pump rate, even though over there is a consistent amount of flow that results. This is directly the the contrary of mine predictions, yet ns learned that the factor why pump price decreases once stroke volume increases is because the love intrinsically changes stroke volume come accommodate transforms in preload or throughout the duration where the ventricles are stretched by the finish diastolic volume. Stroke volume is additionally controlled by the strength and force that contractility the the heart.

3. Explain how the heart changes stroke volume?

The heart changes stroke volume by altering the pump volume or the contractility. By transforming the contractility, girlfriend are changing the strength of the cardiac muscle contraction and also its capability to generate force.

4. Explain the intrinsic components that manage stroke volume.

The intrinsic components that regulate stroke volume room heart rate and also cardiac output. Complete blood flow is proportional come cardiac output. Thus, when the punch volume decreases, the heart price music rise to preserve cardiac output. Yet, when stroke volume increases, the heart rate must decrease to maintain cardiac output.

Activity 7 Questions:

1. Describe how the heart might compensate for transforms in peripheral resistance.

The heart have the right to compensate for changes in peripheral resistance by decreasing blood viscosity and also through adjusting the pressure of contraction of the heart. Raising contractility or forcing convulsion of the heart combats afterload and blood circulation resistance. Increasing contractility will increase cardiac calculation by raising stroke volume.

2. I m sorry mechanism had the best compensatory effect? just how well walk the outcomes compare v your prediction?

My prediction was that boosting the left flow tube radius would have the greatest influence in regards to blood circulation into the appropriate tube, however adjusting the pressure of convulsion of the heart had actually the biggest compensatory result on the flow of blood right into the appropriate beaker.

3. Define what happened when the pump pressure and also the beaker press were the same. Exactly how well walk the results compare v your prediction?

When the pump pressure and the beaker pressure were the same, the valve would certainly not open because there was poor driving push to force liquid out that the pump. This was adverse to my prediction, whereby I predicted the there would be an increase of flow, yet I was incorrect, in that nothing happened and there to be no flow.

4. Explain whether it would certainly be much better to readjust heart price or blood vessel diameter to achieve blood flow changes at a regional level.

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I think the it would certainly be much better to readjust heart price in order to accomplish blood flow changes at a neighborhood level. Although the text and experiments have actually demonstrated the it is more effective to increase blood ship diameter in order to rise the rate of flow within blood vessels, i think the exercise boosts your heart price which is directly linked to rise in blood flow.