1) If the GFR is as well low, necessary substances may pass so quickly through the renal tubules the they room not took in and rather are lost in the urine.

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2) In the kidneys, the countercurrent mechanism entails the interaction between the circulation of filtrate v the nephron loop the the juxtamedullary nephrons (the countercurrent multiplier) and the circulation of blood through the limbs of nearby blood ship (the countercurrent exchanger). This connection establishes and maintains an osmotic gradient prolonging from the cortex v the depths of the medulla that enables the kidneys to vary urine concentration dramatically.
3) The course urine bring away after that is created until it pipeline the body is the urethra, urinary bladder, and finally the ureter.
4) Water reabsorption through the proximal convoluted tubule is termed obligatory water reabsorption, whereas water reabsorption with the distal convoluted tubule is termed facultative water reabsorption.
5) The position of the kidney behind the peritoneal lining the the abdominal cavity is explained by the term retroperitoneal.
10) In the lack of hormones, the distal tubule and also collecting ducts are fairly impermeable come water.
14) Aldosterone is a hormone that reasons the renal tubules come reclaim sodium ion from the filtrate.
15) Blood push in the renal glomerulus is reduced than in many parts of the body in order come conserve body water.
16) The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches come the collecting duct.

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24) The macula densa cells are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in the urea contents of the filtrate.